(1962) "Bilingualism and Structural Borrowing". Pashto (Pushto or Pakhto) is the official language of Afghanistan. His grandson Afzal Khan was the author of an early history of the Pashtun. In: Other sources note 1933, i.e. The number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 30-40 million. « About Pashto Language » Pashto is an Indo-European language spoken primarily in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. [76], Here is an exemplary list of Pure Pashto and borrowings:[77][78][79][80][81], There a lot of old vocabulary that have been replaced by borrowings e.g. Pashto History, Pashtun Valley, Muhammad ali Toru, Pashto Language, About Pashto, , According to G.P.Tate, the author of "The kingdom of Afghanistan " - the first to use Pashto for literary purposes was the famous Pir … Nonetheless, the Pashtuns are sometimes compared with the Pakhta tribes mentioned in the Rigveda (1700–1100 BC), apparently the same as a people called Pactyans, … [84], An example of پلاز is found in a 1000 year-old poetry of Shaikh Asad, a Suri warrior who died in 1034 AD:[85] His arch rival Akhund Derweza (1533-1638) was also compelled to use Pashto to arouse his followers against the Roshania movement. It is also known as Afghani. Contributor: Rafīq, Muḥammad Rafīq - Kābul Pohantūn. [13][55] However, the position that Pashto is a direct descendant of Avestan is not agreed upon. The language is also spoken in the western provinces of Pakistan, which is partially inhabited by the Pashtuns. Scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi and others believe that the earliest Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri in the eighth century, and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana. The total number of Pashto-speakers is at least 40 million,[17] although some estimates place it as high as 60 million.[18]. Pashto. The sentence construction of Pashto is akin to that of Hindi. Morgenstierne, Georg. Pashto has no official status at the federal level. History. Language history and change 4. From the 16th century, Pashto poetry become very popular among the Pashtuns. t͡ʃe d̪ɑ nor ʈo.pəˈn me bo.liˈ gram pə t͡sə, Transliteration: Zə Rahmā́n pə xpə́la gram yəm če mayán yəm ", "د کرښې پرغاړه (په پاکستان کې د مورنیو ژبو حیثیت)", TEACHING AND LEARNING IN PAKISTAN: THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION, "The Pashto language and identity‐formation in Pakistan", "Census of India, 1931, Volume 17, Part 2", Zahid Qamos Pashto Glossary [Zahid Mishwanai], Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning, Pashto Dictionary with Phonetic Keyboard & Auto-Suggestion, Pashto Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan, Resources for the Study of the Pashto Language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pashto&oldid=993438616, Articles with self-published sources from December 2017, Articles with dead external links from November 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Language articles with speaker number undated, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Language articles without reference field, Articles containing Persian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, From: خدای په امان [With/On God's security], For a list of words relating to Pashto, see the. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [16] Pashto is the primary language of the Pashtun diaspora around the world. However small numbers of Pashto speakers exist in India, namely the Sheen Khalai in Rajasthan,[29] and the Pathan community in the city of Kolkata, often nicknamed the Kabuliwala ("people of Kabul").[30][31]. At the time, Pashto speakers were the main challengers to the Mughal Empire. The sound /n/ of Persian is replaced by /l/ in Pashto. [10][11][12][13] Pashto and Dari (Persian) are the two official languages of Afghanistan. LINGUISTIC AFFILIATION: (its relations to other languages). Join the rich traditions of the Pashtun people and the estimated 50 million people worldwide who speak Pashto and embrace the historical and fascinating language of this … If you are about to travel to Pakistan and Afghanistan, this is exactly what you are looking for! The history of Pashto literature spreads over five thousands years having its roots in the oral tradition of tapa. The variation in spelling of the language's name (Pashto, Pukhto, etc.) Although officially supporting the use of Pashto, the Afghan elite regarded Persian as a "sophisticated language and a symbol of cultured upbringing". [10] Each variety is further divided into a number of dialects. د پښتو ږبې تاريخى تحول : اووم سمستر - څلور ساعته / Catalog Record Only Historical study of Pushto language, a textbook designed for 7th semester for Pushto department at University of Nangarhār, Afghanistan. The verb generally agrees with the subject in both transitive and intransitive sentences. Please see discussion on the linked talk page. چې دا نور ټوپن مې بولي ګرم په څۀ, IPA: Zə ra.mɑˈn pə xpəˈl.a gram jəm t͡ʃe ma.jaˈn jəm [28] In India most ethnic Pashtun (Pathan) peoples speak the geographically native Hindi-Urdu language instead of Pashto. "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan", "Government of Pakistan: Population by Mother Tongue", http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files/tables/POPULATION%20BY%20MOTHER%20TONGUE.pdf, https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tattooed-blue-skinned-hindu-pushtuns-look-back-at-their-roots/article22645932.ece, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-32377276, https://www.thebetterindia.com/155394/hindu-pashtun-shilpi-batra-sheenkhalai-afghanistan/, "In a city of ethnic friction, more tinder", "Will change in medium of instruction improve education in KP? The word "Pashto" derives by regular phonological processes from Parsawā- "Persian". "Die Herausbildung moderner iranischer Literatursprachen." The constitutional assembly reaffirmed the status of Pashto as an official language in 1964 when Afghan Persian was officially renamed to Dari. Pashto (Pushto or Pakhto) is the official language of Afghanistan. The History of Pashto Language/Background Pashto language is as old as the “Pashtoon” because Pashto is not only the name of a language that has a very rich history, but a language with deeply rooted norms, values, and traditions. [50].This has caused growing resentment amongst Pashtuns, who also complain that Pashto is often neglected officially . The Pashto language belongs to the Indo-Iranian language family. According to the renowned linguists Darmesteter and Henderson, Pashto has "descended form Avestan". Learn Pashto in only 17 minutes per day - quick, easy and effective! Classical Pushto was the object of study by British soldiers and administrators in the nineteenth century and the classical grammar in use today dates from that period. Pashto language is as old as the “Pashtoon” because Pashto is not only the name of a language that has a very rich history, but a language with deeply rooted norms, values, and traditions. John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Éva Ágnes Csató, Eva Agnes Csato, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... … the first national language is Pashto, even though Persian is the official second language. Media in category "Pashto language" The following 200 files are in this category, out of 388 total. In the Indo-Aryan...…. (previous page) () Nouns and adjectives are inflected for two genders (masc./fem. The History of Pashto language Pashto is one of the national languages of Afghanistan (Dari Persian is the other). It is spoken by more than 35 million people, most of whom reside in Afghanistan or Pakistan. [82] Such classical vocabulary is being reintroduced to modern Pashto. Sizable Pashto-speaking communities also exist in the Middle East, especially in the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia, as well as in the United States, United Kingdom, Thailand, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Qatar, Australia, Japan and Russia etc. Updates? The major dialect divisions themselves have numerous variants. In terms of number of speakers, Chinese has the most native speakers (about 1 billion), while English (about 350 million) is more widely used in different parts of the world. Translation: "What should I do about Heaven's powers, uncle...Sometimes you throw rulers from thrones". The origin of Pashto language and the Pashtun tribes is unknown. List of colors borrowed from neighbouring languages: Areas in Afghanistan and Pakistan where Pashto is: The only American pronunciation listed by. The word "Pashto" derives by regular phonological processes from Parsawā-"Persian". In Pakistan, Pashto is the first language of 15% of its population (as of 1998),[43][44] mainly in the northwestern province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern districts of Balochistan province. Manuscripts should not exceed 8000 words (including end notes and references). Both belong to the Indo-European group of languages. The language courses specialist 17-minute-languages.com offers a proven possibility to learn Pashto easily and that in only about 17 minutes training per day. The first Pashto teaching text was written during the period of Ahmad Shah Durrani by Pir Mohammad Kakar with the title of Maʿrifat al-Afghānī ("The Knowledge of Afghani [Pashto]"). Pashto borrows words more from Urdu, whereas Dari has more borrowings from Turkmen and Uzbek. On a provincial level, Pashto is the regional language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and north Balochistan. The Pashto alphabet consists of 45 letters[87] and 4 diacritic marks.In the Latin transliteration, stress is represented by the following markers over vowels: ә́, á, ā́, ú, ó, í and é. The origin of Pashto language and the Pashtun tribes is unknown. Pashto language, Pashto also spelled Pashtu, also called Pakhtu, member of the Iranian division of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages. There are over 9 million speakers of Pashto in Afghanistan. Scholars have found it difficult to reach consensus regarding specific claims about Pashto’s origins. Aspirates—sounds accompanied by an audible breath—are common to most of Pashto’s neighbouring Indo-Aryan languages but are uncommon in Pashto. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh. There are over 9 million speakers of Pashto in Afghanistan. Pashto also converged with the northwestern Indian languages, especially the Prakrits, Balochi, and Sindhi. [34] Since the early 18th century, the monarchs of Afghanistan have been ethnic Pashtuns (except for Habibullāh Kalakāni in 1929). From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto has been the language of the court. The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses: present, simple past, past progressive, present perfect, and past perfect. He gave Pashto prose and poetry a new and powerful tone with a rich literary legacy. [35] Persian, the literary language of the royal court,[36] was more widely used in government institutions while the Pashtun tribes spoke Pashto as their native tongue. The language is also spoken in the western provinces of Pakistan, which is partially inhabited by the Pashtuns. MacKenzie, 1990, "Pashto", in Bernard Comrie, ed. Originally spoken by the Pashtun people, Pashto became the national language of Afghanistan in 1936. 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