Members of the genus grow as tall, wetland grasses, growing to 1–2 m tall; the genus includes both annual and perennial species. The broken rice that is imported is sold to wholesalers in Dakar and other regions, but clandestine trade is very important, with Gambian rice being found in all markets in great quantity. The Origin of African Plant Domestication, Redefining Nature: Ecology, Culture and Domestication, Tratado Breve dos Rios de Guiné do Cabo Verde, Premier Voyage de Sieur de la Courbe Fait a la Costed'Afrique en 1685, Nouvelle Relation de l'Afrique Occidentale, Power, Prayer and Production: The Jola of Casamance, Senegal, Shrines of the Slave Trade: Diola Religion and Society in Precolonial Senegambia, Agenda for Action: African–Soviet–U.S. Jola women also prefer longer-grained rice, which is easier to pound, and nonglutinous varieties that they say are easier to cook. Oryza sativa is a major and important crop of Asia, especially southern, eastern, and South-East Asia, and also important in Southern Europe, like France, and the Americas, while Oryza glaberrima is distributed as a semi-upland (non irrigated largely, but, irrigated partially, as well) land type found in high rainfall areas. PubMed Google Scholar, Received: 1 June 1991 / Accepted: 22 June 1999, Lorieux, M., Ndjiondjop, MN. The early Colonial history of O. glaberrima begins when the first Portuguese reached the West African coast and witnessed the cultivation of rice in the floodplains and marshes of the Upper Guinea Coast. This was the first clear warning sign that many difficult years were ahead. The farmers, in turn, provided information to the scientists about the traits that they most valued in the new hybrids. Oryza sativa Japonica Group (Oryza sativa Japonica Group, IRGSP-1.0) and Oryza glaberrima (Oryza glaberrima, Oryza_glaberrima_V1) were aligned using the LastZ alignment algorithm () in Ensembl Plants release 76.Oryza sativa Japonica Group was used as the reference species. ; Oryza glutinosa Lour. It also makes a good flour that is more aromatic and tastes better than the flour made from the O. sativa species. I am grateful to the reviewers for their helpful comments. It is also quite probable that further south, in the more intensive rice-growing zone south of the Casamance River, the Jola were growing an even higher number of O. glaberrima varieties than in Jipalom in the 1960s. glaberrima… It was based on PCR markers, essentially microsatellites and STSs. In doing so, they used seeds of African rice varieties that local farmers, many of them women from Guinea, grew in their fields, and incorporated them into gene banks. Abstract. A strong segregation-distortion hot spot was observed on chromosome 6 near the waxy gene, indicating the presence of s Slight morphological differences separate the two species of rice, making them difficult to tell apart in the field. In the 1960s, many African farmers were producing enough rice to feed themselves. Several traits were measured on the BC1 plants, and major genes and QTLs were mapped for these traits. This rice carried a life-giving power that explained the ultimate origins of the land that Emitai had bestowed upon the inhabitants. The enormous scientific efforts that produced NERICA will result in a “Green Revolution” in which nearly 1.7 million West African farmers will benefit from increased food security. Some O. glaberrima types also mature faster than Asian types, making them important as emergency food (5). Two distinct species of domesticated rice exist in the genus Oryza: Oryza sativa (Asian rice) and Oryza glaberrima (African rice). In the past, utilisation of African cultivated rice, Oryza glaberrima, in O. sativa breeding was hampered by high sterility in interspecific F1 and in early progenies. At the present time, O. glaberrima is being replaced everywhere in West Africa by the Asian species, introduced into the continent by the Portuguese as early as the middle of the 16th century (1). Jola women transplant the rice seedlings. In the coastal area, where rice is a dominant subsistence crop, isolated pockets of O. glaberrima cultivation remain in Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and in the Casamance region of southern Senegal, the zone we are concerned with here. It will help their countries save millions of dollars in rice imports. Box plots depicted high estimates of variability for days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant in Kharif 2016, plant height, productive tillers, panicle length and 1000 seed weight in Kharif 2017. Ejonkin is grown in considerable quantities by the Jola living in four communities on the shores of one of the important tidal channels (or marigots) that extend inland from the entrance of the Casamance River. Moreover, it is said that O. glaberrima varieties are difficult to thresh using one's feet because grains are arranged in a row on the spine. In Bignona, a town close to the Jipalom community, rainfall for the month of June 1968 was only one-third that of previous years. This phenomenon is documented below with respect to the Jola peoples of Casamance, who some decades ago planted numerous varieties of African rice but no longer do so. In addition, rice is an important but not a dominant crop in the drier savanna zones from the Senegal River to Lake Chad. At present, O. glaberrima is being replaced by the introduced Asian species of rice, Oryza sativa. It is doubtful, however, that in former days, those who grew and cooked rice found it necessary to remove the bran, or to boil the rice for a short period. This study investigated the ontogenetic patterns of leaf blade area and dimensions on the main stem and tillers of three rice cultivars, IAC47, Javaé ( Oryza sativa L.) and CG14 ( O. glaberrima Steud.) Here we present a high-quality assembly and annotation of the O. glaberrima genome and detailed analyses of its evolutionary history of … Origins and geographic diversification of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) Rice is a staple food for the majority of the world’s population. A. As a National Research Council report points out, “this should not be allowed to happen. But drought years were not always in consecutive years. Thus, despite the abundant rains, the severely restricted gamut of varieties planted by the Jipalom inhabitants had worked against them. Small quantities of cooked rice belonging to any O. glaberrima species, in this instance ejonkin, must be placed each year around the shrine to ask for abundant rains. Although difficult to measure, the protracted civil war that has brought endless confrontations between soldiers of the Senegalese army and Jola rebels of the MFDC forces (Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques de la Casamance) has caused the abandonment of several Jola communities in the southern sector, near the frontier with Guinea Bissau. In summary, 6 of 19 varieties, or nearly one-third of the rice that was grown in 1965 by the inhabitants of the Jipalom community, belonged to the African rice (O. glaberrima) species. However, some Asian rice types also have pear-shaped grains with a red bran, and some African types have pointed ligules (6). E. Variety adusta, types longa, media, media/longa. African O. glaberrima varieties have certain negative features with respect to the Asian O. sativa: the seed scatters easily, the grain is brittle and difficult to mill, and, most importantly, the yields are lower. Online ISSN 1091-6490. African rice is native to West Africa, where it is cultivated as a foodcrop. Whereas 1969 and 1970 had a satisfactory precipitation, 1971 and especially 1972 were deficit years. The discussion that follows documents the O. glaberrima types that Jola cultivated in the 1960s, the reasons why they were abandoned, and the cultural context in which they still survive. Several hybrids between Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima and their backcrosses with O. sativa were studied. B. In Jipalom, it is the women who select the rice seed; it is they, and not the men, who can distinguish the different varieties (Fig. South of the river, however, the more “traditional” Jola reject this poor-quality rice, refusing to eat it. That rice growth was not confined to the valley of the Gambia River, but was practiced by many populations living along the West African coast known as the Southern Rivers, was brought out by Eustache de la Fosse in 1479–1480. Native to sub-Saharan Africa, O. glaberrima is thought to have been domesticated from the wild ancestor Oryza barthii (formerly known as Oryza brevilugata) by peoples living in the floodplains at the bend of the Niger River some 2,000–3,000 years ago (1, 2). In another part of de la Courbe's account, the section that Labat plagiarized in 1728 and ascribed to a governor called André Brue, he gives a description of the countryside: “the low lands, and those that are watered by ordinary spillover from the heavy rains at the height of the season, or inundated by springs or currents coming from higher up, are all planted in rice. 1) that has a sub-Guinean tropical climate and a marshy, coastal landscape. A. O. sativa L., subspecies O. brevis Gutschin (one variety, one type). They have proposed that O. glaberrima was selected for at several different localities within the vast forest and savanna areas, where the wild ancestor species O. barthii grew and was harvested by ancient hunting–gathering human populations. In the United States, mortality rates and life expectancy were worse for Blacks during nonpandemic years than for Whites during the COVID-19 pandemic, a study finds. Because different kinds of soils are found in the various types of paddy fields (sandy soils in the nurseries, for example, and clayey soils in the kuyelen fields that retain rainwater) it is imperative that the right kind of seed or seedling is put in each sector of the rice fields. To propitiate their own version of the Husurah shrine, the inhabitants of communities such as Sambujat, who no longer cultivate the O. glaberrima varieties, must go to one of the aforementioned communities and trade 10 jugs filled with palm wine for one jug of ejonkin. For example, precipitation in the Sindian area was 1,310 mm in 1994 and 1,435 mm in 1999. Image credit: Aurora Fernández Durán (photographer). Further on he describes the technology used by the Felupos or Jola: “The lands that are flat and well irrigated are perfectly cultivated, and they do not use but shovels of wood provided with a flat piece of iron at one end and a long handle to cultivate” (ref. Two Oryza species are important cereals for human nutrition: Oryza sativa (Asian rice), grown worldwide, and Oryza glaberrima (African rice), grown in parts of West Africa. This reliance on few varieties made farmers aware of the necessity during future years to plant some of the older, slower varieties to have widely spaced harvests. Thomas Kluyver (talk) 15:37, 23 October 2009 (UTC) Support For most other organisms that have an article about them, the common name … Trading varieties sometimes takes place over considerable distances, between women living in separate villages, so that rice seed circulates over wide spheres of exchange. MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE. Conditions improved somewhat in the years after 1993. 4). Some West African farmers, including the Jola of southern Senegal, still grow African rice for use in ritual contexts. Their knowledge, expertise, and continued adherence to their traditional rice provided the basis for experiments that resulted in the creation of a promising new hybrid. The African species of rice (Oryza glaberrima) was cultivated long before Europeans arrived in the continent. To summarize, the ancient species of African rice survives in pockets of Lower Casamance, where the Jola employ it in sacred rites. Much of the crop lodged, rotted from the excessive water at the start of the season, or dried up when not gathered in time at the end of the season. A woman will trade a variety that is best suited to the rain-fed fields (the biit) for one that grows well in the mangrove fields (the weng). Image credit: Rosenzweig lab, Weizmann Institute of Science. Four progenies of crosses between the two cultivated rice species were obtained by pollinating a common Oryza glaberrima/O. The two species, O. glaberrima and O. sativa, are also easily separated on the basis of their morphology, and their growth and ecological features are well known. But this rice was destined for the cities; most rural rice-producing areas like Lower Casamance were largely self-sufficient. In order to further understand the nature of interspecific hybrid sterility between these two species, a strategy of multi-donors was used to elucidate the range of … grown in pots without competition among plants. 15, pp. The rice samples collected were then identified in 1966 by R. Portères, the renowned rice expert, who divided the sample into the two species and named their various subspecies and types. Molecular profiling of these germplasms is important for both genetics and breeding studies. Thus, both cultural and ecological variables entered significantly into these developments. And they are difficult to pound (i.e., mill) because the red bran cannot be easily removed, and are slow to cook. The situation in Senegal illustrates clearly this shift from self-sufficiency to dependence on the market. My purpose is to explore the reasons for the demise of the species and document the contexts in which it still survives. This must have been at the turn of the century, before the O. sativa varieties were introduced. Oryza glaberrima is the scientific name for African rice, following the standard Latin two-part naming system (binomial nomenclature) introduced by the Swede, Carl Linnaeus, in the 18 th century. South of the river, however, in the wetter, more intensive rice-growing regions west of Oussouye, in the lands located at the entrance of the Casamance River, the majority of the inhabitants have remained practitioners of the traditional awasena religion (from kawasen, to pour palm wine libations at the shrines) (17). E. O. sativa L., subspecies O. indica Gutschin (5 varieties and 11 types). Cooperation, Drought and Hunger in Africa: Denying Famine a Future, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, http://primature.sn/lesoleil/rizimporte.htm, http://www.scienceinafrica.co.za/nerica.htm, African rice (Oryza glaberrima): History and future potential, The Drought and Its Aftermath: Old Varieties Disappear and New Ones Are Introduced, NERICA: New Rice Varieties Hold Great Promise for Sub-Saharan Africa, US racial inequality: A pandemic-scale problem, Journal Club: Machinery of heat shock protein suggests disease interventions, Copyright © 2002, The National Academy of Sciences. Variety mutica, types longi-perlonga and longa. 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