Cisco began supporting VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf technology in about 2014 on multiple Cisco Nexus switches such as the Cisco Nexus 5600 platform and Cisco Nexus 7000 and 9000 Series. The Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for VXLAN. Each host is associated with a host subnet and talks with other hosts through Layer 3 routing. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network uses Layer 2 FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation, and it uses FabricPath IS-IS for the control-plane in the underlay network. An additional spine switch can be added, and uplinks can be extended to every leaf switch, resulting in the addition of interlayer bandwidth and reduction of the oversubscription. Figure 20 shows an example of a Layer 3 MSDC spine-and-leaf network with an eBGP control plane (AS = autonomous system). These are the VN-segment edge ports. For feature support and more information about Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn technology, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. Gensler, Corgan, and HDR top Building Design+Construction’s annual ranking of the nation’s largest data center sector architecture and A/E firms, as reported in the 2016 Giants 300 Report. Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN network characteristics, Localized flood and learn with ARP suppression, Forwarded by underlay multicast (PIM) or ingress replication, (Note: Ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. ), (Note: The spine switch only needs to run BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing. VerifythateachendsystemresolvesthevirtualgatewayMACaddressforasubnet usingthegatewayIRBaddressonthecentralgateways(spinedevices). The VXLAN flood-and-learn network is a Layer 2 overlay network, and Layer 3 SVIs are laid on top of the Layer 2 overlay network. ●      Media controller mode: manages Cisco IP Fabric network for Media solution and helps transition from an SDI router to an IP-based infrastructure. Data Centered Architecture is also known as Database Centric Architecture. The original Layer 2 frame is encapsulated in a VXLAN header and then placed in a UDP-IP packet and transported across the IP network. The automation tools can handle different fabric topologies and form factors, creating a modular solution that can adapt to different-sized data centers. Data center architecture is usually created in the data center design and constructing phase. A legacy mindset in data center architecture revolves around the notion of “design now, deploy later.” The approach to creating a versatile, digital-ready data center must involve the deployment of infrastructure during the design session. The standard breaks down as follows: Government regulations for data centers will depend on the nature of the business and can include HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), SOX (Sarbanes Oxley) 2002, SAS 70 Type I or II, GLBA (Gramm-Leach Bliley Act), as well as new regulations that may be implemented depending on the nature of your business and the present security situation. Learn more about our thought leaders and innovative projects for a variety of market sectors ranging from Corporate Commercial to Housing, Pre-K – 12 to Higher Education, Healthcare to Science & Technology (including automotive, data centers and crime laboratories). The traditional data center uses a three-tier architecture, with servers segmented into pods based on location, as shown in Figure 1. The data center is at the foundation of modern software technology, serving a critical role in expanding capabilities for enterprises. Cisco’s MSDC topology design uses a Layer 3 spine-and-leaf architecture. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network supports Layer 2 multitenancy (Figure 14). The modern data center is an exciting place, and it looks nothing like the data center of only 10 years past. The spine switch has two functions. Also, the spine Layer 3 VXLAN gateway learns the host MAC address, so you need to consider the MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limits of your hardware. ), Supports both Layer 2 multitenancy and Layer 3 multitenancy, RFC 7348 and RFC8365 (previously draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay). In the VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network, VNIs define the Layer 2 domains and enforce Layer 2 segmentation by not allowing Layer 2 traffic to traverse VNI boundaries. Ratings/Reliability is defined by Class 0 to 4 and certified by BICSI-trained and certified professionals. Data center design with extended Layer 3 domain. This traffic needs to be handled efficiently, with low and predictable latency. Spine switches are performing intra-VLAN FabricPath frame switching. (This mode is not relevant to this white paper.). The architecture consists of core routers, aggregation routers (sometimes called distribution routers), and access switches. Although the concept of a network overlay is not new, interest in network overlays has increased in the past few years because of their potential to address some of these requirements. Note that the ingress replication feature is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Both designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing functions are centralized on specific switches. The nature of your business will determine which standards are appropriate for your facility. The three-tier is the common network architecture used in data centers. ●      Its underlay and overlay management tools provide many network management capabilities, simplifying workload visibility, optimizing troubleshooting, automating fabric component provisioning, automating overlay tenant network provisioning, etc. When traffic needs to be routed between VXLAN segments or from a VXLAN segment to a VLAN segment and vice visa, the Layer 3 VXLAN gateway function needs to be enabled on some VTEPs. AWS pioneered cloud computing in 2006, creating cloud infrastructure that allows you to securely build and innovate faster. Massively scalable data centers (MSDCs) are large data centers, with thousands of physical servers (sometimes hundreds of thousands), that have been designed to scale in size and computing capacity with little impact on the existing infrastructure. The VXLAN VTEP uses a list of IP addresses of other VTEPS in the network to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. The FabricPath IS-IS control plane builds reachability information about how to reach other FabricPath switches. This helps ensure infrastructure is deployed consistently in a single data center or across multiple data centers, while also helping to reduce costs and the time employees spend maintaining it. With the anycast gateway function in EVPN, end hosts in a VNI always can use their local VTEPs for this VNI as their default gateway to send traffic out of their IP subnet. The external routing function is centralized on specific switches. TOP 25 DATA CENTER ARCHITECTURE FIRMS RANK COMPANY 2016 DATA CENTER REVENUE 1 Jacobs $58,960,000 2 Corgan $38,890,000 3 Gensler $23,000,000 4 HDR $14,913,721 5 Page $14,500,000 6 Sheehan Partners Top 25 data center architecture firms | Building Design + Construction It is arranged as a guide for data center design, construction, and operation. It is simple, flexible, and stable; it has good scalability and fast convergence characteristics; and it supports multiple parallel paths at Layer 2. Facility ratings are based on Availability Classes, from 1 to 4. Cisco Data Center Network Manager (DCNM) is a management system for the Cisco® Unified Fabric. As shown in the design for internal and external routing on the spine layer in Figure 12, the leaf ToR VTEP switch is a Layer 2 VXLAN gateway to transport the Layer 2 segment over the underlay Layer 3 IP network. Data Center Design, Inc. provides customers with projects ranging from new Data Center design and construction to Data Center renovation and expansion with follow-up service. TRM is based on a standards-based next-generation control plane (ngMVPN) described in IETF RFC 6513 and 6514. This approach keeps latency at a predictable level because a payload only has to hop to a spine switch and another leaf switch to reach its destination. Environments of this scale have a unique set of network requirements, with an emphasis on application performance, network simplicity and stability, visibility, easy troubleshooting and easy life cycle management, etc. (2) Tenant Routed Multicast (TRM) for Cisco Nexus 9000 Cloud Scale Series Switches. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. For additional information, see the following references: ●      Data center overlay technologies: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-730116.html, ●      VXLAN network with MP-BGP EVPN control plane: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/guide-c07-734107.html, ●      Cisco Massively Scalable Data Center white paper: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-743245.html, ●      XLAN EVPN TRM blog: https://blogs.cisco.com/datacenter/vxlan-innovations-on-the-nexus-os-part-1-of-2, View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices, Ingress-replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. It doesn’t learn the overlay host MAC address. Traditional three-tier data center design. Regardless of the standard followed, documentation and record keeping of your operation and maintenance activities is one of the most important parts of the process. Moreover, scalability is another major issue in three-tier DCN. Not all facilities supporting your specific industry will meet your defined mission, so your facility may not look or operate like another, even in the same industry. Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of a VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network. The Layer 2 overlay network is created on top of the Layer 3 IP underlay network by using the VTEP tunneling mechanism to transport Layer 2 packets. Hosts attached to remote VTEPs are learned remotely through the MP-BGP control plane. Traditional three-tier data center design The architecture consists of core routers, aggregation routers (sometimes called distribution routers), and access switches. In 2010, Cisco introduced virtual-port-channel (vPC) technology to overcome the limitations of Spanning Tree Protocol. Hyperscale users and increased demand have turned data into the new utility, making quicker, leaner facilities a must. This document reviews several spine-and-leaf architecture designs that Cisco has offered in the recent past as well as current designs and those the Cisco expects to offer in the near future to address fabric requirements in the modern virtualized data center: ●      Cisco® FabricPath spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco VXLAN Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MP-BGP) Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco Massively Scalable Data Center (MSDC) Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network. From client-inclusive idea generation to collaborative community engagement, Shive-Hattery is grounded in the belief that design-thinking is a … Application and Virtualization Infrastructure Are Directly Linked to Data Center Design. The Azure Architecture Center provides best practices for running your workloads on Azure. Green certifications, such as LEED, Green Globes, and Energy Star are also considered optional. The spine layer is the backbone of the network and is responsible for interconnecting all leaf switches. Customer edge links (access and trunk) carry traditional VLAN tagged and untagged frames. Example of MSDC Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network with BGP control plane. Mecanoo has unveiled their design for the Qianhai Data Center in Shenzhen, China, from which they received second prize in an international design … Lines and paragraphs break automatically. The data center architecture specifies where and how the server, storage networking, racks and other data center resources will be physically placed. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. The FabricPath network supports up to four anycast gateways for internal VLAN routing. ●      It reduces network flooding through protocol-based host MAC address IP address route distribution and ARP suppression on the local VTEPs. Data Center Architects are responsible for adequately securing the Data Center and should examine factors such as facility design and architecture. It has modules on all the major sub-systems of a mission critical facility and their interdependencies, including power, cooling, compute and network. The target of maximum efficiency is achieved by considering these below-mentioned factors. TIA uses tables within the standard to easily identify the ratings for telecommunications, architectural, electrical, and mechanical systems. It also addresses how these resources/devices will be interconnected and how physical and logical security workflows are arranged. It uses FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation. It is part of the underlay Layer 3 IP network and transports the VXLAN encapsulated packets. The multi-tier approach includes web, application, and database tiers of servers. Table 4. With a spine-and-leaf architecture, no matter which leaf switch to which a server is connected, its traffic always has to cross the same number of devices to get to another server (unless the other server is located on the same leaf). Will has experience with large US hyperscale clients, serving as project architect for three years on a hyperscale project in Holland, and with some of the largest engineering firms. For Layer 3 IP multicast traffic, traffic needs to be forwarded by Layer 3 multicast using Protocol-Independent Multicast (PIM). This section describes Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn characteristic on these Cisco hardware switches. Each VTEP device is independently configured with this multicast group and participates in PIM routing. This feature uses a 24-bit increased name space. ●      It provides VTEP peer discovery and authentication, mitigating the risk from rogue VTEPs in the VXLAN overlay network. Note that the maximum number of inter-VXLAN active-active gateways is two with a Hot-Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) and vPC configuration. Today, most web-based applications are built as multi-tier applications. Similarly, there is no single way to manage the data center fabric. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, it suffers the same flooding challenges as a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. In the VXLAN flood-and-learn mode defined in RFC 7348, end-host information learning and VTEP discovery are both data-plane based, with no control protocol to distribute end-host reachability information among the VTEPs. Designing the modern data center begins with the careful placement of “good bones.”. It represents the current state. The placement of a Layer 3 function in a FabricPath network needs to be carefully designed. This capability enables optimal forwarding for northbound traffic from end hosts in the VXLAN overlay network. Code minimum fire suppression would involve having wet pipe sprinklers in your data center. ●      Fabric scalability and flexibility: Overlay technologies allow the network to scale by focusing scaling on the network overlay edge devices. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco but is based on the TRILL standard. Cisco spine-and-leaf layer 2 and layer 3 fabric comparison, Cisco Spine-and-Leaf Layer 2 and Layer 3 Fabric, Forwarded by underlay PIM or ingress replication, (Note: Ingress-replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Each tenant has its own VRF routing instance. A good data center design should plan to automate as many of the operational functions that employees perform as possible. Up to four FabricPath anycast gateways can be enabled in the design with routing at the border leaf. Data Center Design and Implementation Best Practices: This standard covers the major aspects of planning, design, construction, and commissioning of the MEP building trades, as well as fire protection, IT, and maintenance. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. A new data center design called the Clos network–based spine-and-leaf architecture was developed to overcome these limitations. ●      Overlapping addressing: Most overlay technologies used in the data center allow virtual network IDs to uniquely scope and identify individual private networks. ●      It uses the decade-old MP-BGP VPN technology to support scalable multitenant VXLAN overlay networks. Most customers use eBGP because of its scalability and stability. This document presented several spine-and-leaf architecture designs from Cisco, including the most important technology components and design considerations for each architecture at the time of the writing of this document. Following appropriate codes and standards would seem to be an obvious direction when designing new or upgrading an existing data center. ), (Note: TRM is supported on Cisco Nexus 9000 Cloud Scale Series Switches). As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, it suffers the same flooding challenges as the FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. For a FabricPath network, the FabricPath IS-IS control plane by default creates two multidestination trees that carry broadcast traffic, unknown unicast traffic, and multicast traffic through the FabricPath network. vPC technology works well in a relatively small data center environment in which most traffic consists of northbound and southbound communication between clients and servers. However, vPC can provide only two active parallel uplinks, and so bandwidth becomes a bottleneck in a three-tier data center architecture. Data center design is a relatively new field that houses a dynamic and evolving technology. ), (Note: The spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing VTEP on hardware. Explore HED’s integrated architectural and engineering practice. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network complies with the IETF VXLAN standards (RFC 7348). His experience also includes providing analysis of critical application support facilities. The switch virtual interfaces (SVIs) on the spine switch are performing inter-VLAN routing for east-west internal traffic and exchange routing adjacency information with Layer 3 routed uplinks to route north-south external traffic. Routed traffic needs to traverse only one hop to reach to default gateway at the spine switches to be routed. With virtualized servers, applications are increasingly deployed in a distributed fashion, which leads to increased east-west traffic. With IP multicast enabled in the underlay network, each VXLAN segment, or VNID, is mapped to an IP multicast group in the transport IP network. This Shortest-Path First (SPF) routing protocol is used to determine reachability and select the best path or paths to any given destination FabricPath switch in the FabricPath network. Spine devices are responsible for learning infrastructure routes and end-host subnet routes. Interest in overlay networks has also increased with the introduction of new encapsulation frame formats specifically built for the data center. Internal and external routed traffic needs to travel one underlay hop from the leaf VTEP to the spine switch to be routed. Regarding routing design, the Cisco MSDC control plane uses dynamic Layer 3 protocols such as eBGP to build the routing table that most efficiently routes a packet from a source to a spine node. It doesn’t learn host MAC addresses. Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn technology complies with the IETF VXLAN standards (RFC 7348), which defined a multicast-based flood-and-learn VXLAN without a control plane. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer 3 multitenancy using Virtual Routing and Forwarding lite (VRF-lite), as shown in Figure 9. Underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature is used to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. vPC eliminates the spanning-tree blocked ports, provides active-active uplink from the access switches to the aggregation routers, and makes full use of the available bandwidth, as shown in Figure 2. To overcome the limitations of flood-and-learn VXLAN, Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol Ethernet Virtual Private Network, or MP-BGP EVPN, as the control plane for VXLAN. It complies with IETF VXLAN standards RFC 7348 and RFC8365 (previously draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay). The Layer 3 function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. A distributed anycast gateway also offers the benefit of transparent host mobility in the VXLAN overlay network. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network relies on initial data-plane traffic flooding to enable VTEPs to discover each other and to learn remote host MAC addresses and MAC-to-VTEP mappings for each VXLAN segment. The border leaf switch runs MP-BGP EVPN on the inside with the other VTEPs in the VXLAN fabric and exchanges EVPN routes with them. FabricPath links (switch-port mode: fabricpath) carry VN-segment tagged frames for VLANs that have VXLAN network identifiers (VNIs) defined. Also, with SVIs enabled on the spine switch, the spine switch disables conversational learning and learns the MAC address in the corresponding subnet. The original Layer 2 frame is encapsulated with a VXLAN header and then placed in a UDP-IP packet and transported across an IP network. Each VTEP device is independently configured with this multicast group and participates in PIM routing. That’s the goal of Intel Rack Scale Design (Intel RSD), a blueprint for unleashing industry innovation around a common CDI-based data center architecture. These IP addresses are exchanged between VTEPs through the BGP EVPN control plane or static configuration. IP subnets of the VNIs for a given tenant are in the same Layer 3 VRF instance that separates the Layer 3 routing domain from the other tenants. Intel RSD is an implementation specification enabling interoperability across hardware and software vendors. The spine switch learns external routes and advertises them to the EVPN domain as EVPN routes so that other VTEP leaf nodes can also learn about the external routes for sending outbound traffic. The Layer 3 spine-and-leaf design intentionally does not support Layer 2 VLANs across ToR switches because it is a Layer 3 fabric. Number 8860726. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network uses Layer 3 IP for the underlay network. Fidelity is opening a new data center in Nebraska this fall. For example, fabrics need to support scaling of forwarding tables, scaling of network segments, Layer 2 segment extension, virtual device mobility, forwarding path optimization, and virtualized networks for multitenant support on shared physical infrastructure. Servers may talk with other servers in different subnets or talk with clients in remote branch offices over the WAN or Internet. The border leaf switch can also be configured to send EVPN routes learned in the Layer 2 VPN EVPN address family to the IPv4 or IPv6 unicast address family and advertise them to the external routing device. Broadcast and unknown unicast traffic in FabricPath is flooded to all FabricPath edge ports in the VLAN or broadcast domain. In a typical VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network design, the leaf Top-of-Rack (ToR) switches are enabled as VTEP devices to extend the Layer 2 segments between racks. It extends Layer 2 segments over a Layer 3 infrastructure to build Layer 2 overlay logical networks. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network needs to provide Layer 3 internal VXLAN routing as well as maintain connectivity with the networks that are external to the VXLAN fabric, including the campus network, WAN, and Internet. In 2013, UI requested that TIA stop using the Tier system to describe reliability levels, and TIA switched to using the word “Rated” in lieu of “Tiers,” defined as Rated 1-4. The key is to choose a standard and follow it. Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network. The Cisco FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco. The Layer 3 internal routed traffic is routed directly by the distributed anycast gateway on each ToR switch in a scale-out fashion. The control-plane learns end-host Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information (MAC and IP addresses) and distributes this information through the EVPN address family, thus providing integrated bridging and routing in VXLAN overlay networks. FabricPath is a Layer 2 network fabric technology, which allows you to easily scale the network capacity simply by adding more spine nodes and leaf nodes at Layer 2. As an extension to MP-BGP, MP-BGP EVPN inherits the support for multitenancy with VPN using the VRF construct. Don't miss what's happening in your neighborhood. VLAN has local significance on the leaf VTEP switch, and the VNI has global significance across the VXLAN network. To support multitenancy, the same VLAN can be reused on different VTEP switches, and IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames received on VTEPs are mapped to specific VNIs. Please note that TRM is only supported on newer generation of Nexus 9000 switches such as Cloud Scale ASIC–based switches. The investment giant is one of the biggest advocates outside Silicon Valley for open source hardware, and the new building itself is a modular, just-in-time construction design. With this design, tenant traffic needs to take two underlay hops (VTEP to spine to border leaf) to reach the external network. Note that the ingress-replication feature is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. With overlays used at the fabric edge, the spine and core devices are freed from the need to add end-host information to their forwarding tables. As shown in the design for internal and external routing at the border spine in Figure 6, the spine switch functions as the Layer 2 and Layer 3 boundary and server subnet gateway. Cisco introduced FabricPath technology in 2010. It reduces network flooding through control-plane-based host MAC and IP address route distribution and ARP suppression on the local VTEPs. But a FabricPath network is a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. It retains the easy-configuration, plug-and-play deployment model of a Layer 2 environment. Table 3 summarizes the characteristics of the VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network. A data accessoror a collection of independent components that operate on the central data store, perform computations, and might put back the results. https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/sites/datacenterknowledge.com/files/logos/DCK_footer.png, The choice of standards should be driven by the organization’s business mission, Top500: Japan’s Fugaku Still the World’s Fastest Supercomputer, Intel’s Ice Lake Chips to Enable Confidential Computing on Data Center-Grade Servers. Cisco DCNM can be installed in four modes: ●      Classic LAN mode: manages Cisco Nexus Data Center infrastructure deployed in legacy designs, such as vPC design, FabricPath design, etc. The spine switch can also be configured to send EVPN routes learned in the Layer 2 VPN EVPN address family to the IPv4 or IPv6 unicast address family and advertise them to the external routing device. Table 4 summarizes the characteristics of a Layer 3 MSDC spine-and-leaf network. 5. End-host information in the overlay network is learned through the flood-and-learn mechanism with conversational learning. But routed traffic needs to traverse two hops: leaf to spine and then to the default gateway on the border leaf to be routed. With this design, the spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing. But it is still a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. It provides rich-insights telemetry information and other advanced analytics information, etc. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer 3 multitenancy using VRF-lite (Figure 15). This section describes VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN on Cisco Nexus hardware switches such as the Cisco Nexus 5600 platform switches and Cisco Nexus 7000 and 9000 Series Switches. The Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network complies with the IETF VXLAN standards (RFC 7348). Examples of MSDCs are large cloud service providers that host thousands of tenants, and web portal and e-commerce providers that host large distributed applications. For Layer 2 multicast traffic, traffic entering the FabricPath switch is hashed to a multidestination tree to be forwarded. The leaf Layer is responsible for advertising server subnets in the network fabric. Similarly, Layer 3 segmentation among VXLAN tenants is achieved by applying Layer 3 VRF technology and enforcing routing isolation among tenants by using a separate Layer 3 VNI mapped to each VRF instance. But the FabricPath network is flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. Also, the border leaf Layer 3 VXLAN gateway learns the host MAC address, so you need to consider the MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limits of your hardware. Due to the limitations of The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network doesn’t have a control plane for the overlay network. Two major design options are available: internal and external routing at a border spine, and internal and external routing at a border leaf. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for the VXLAN overlay network. About the author: Steven Shapiro has been in the mission critical industry since 1988 and has a diverse background in the study, reporting, design, commissioning, development and management of reliable electrical distribution, emergency power, lighting, and fire protection systems for high tech environments. After MAC-to-VTEP mapping is complete, the VTEPs forward VXLAN traffic in a unicast stream. Network overlays are virtual networks of interconnected nodes that share an underlying physical network, allowing deployment of applications that require specific network topologies without the need to modify the underlying network (Figure 5). Layer 3 IP multicast traffic is forwarded by Layer 3 PIM-based multicast routing. Note that ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. This design complies with IETF VXLAN standards RFC 7348 and draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network supports up to two active-active gateways with vPC for internal VXLAN routing. Data centers often have multiple fiber connections to the internet provided by multiple … The FabricPath network supports up to four anycast gateways for internal VLAN routing. Underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature is used to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. As in a traditional VLAN environment, routing between VXLAN segments or from a VXLAN segment to a VLAN segment is required in many situations. The ease of expansion optimizes the IT department’s process of scaling the network. Table 5. Your facility must meet the business mission. Data center network architecture must be highly adaptive, as managers must essentially predict the future in order to create physical spaces that accommodate rapidly evolving tech. It is an industry-standard protocol and uses underlay IP networks. Please review this table and each section of this document carefully and read the reference documents to obtain additional information to help you choose the technology that best fits your data center environment. Mr. Shapiro is the author of numerous technical articles and is also a speaker at many technical industry seminars. Interactions or communication between the data accessors is only through the data stor… Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. You need to consider MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limit on the border leaf switch. The most efficient and effective data center designs use relatively new design fundamentals to create the required high energy density, high reliability environment. The architect must demonstrate the capacity to develop a robust server and storage architecture. It provides real-time health summaries, alarms, visibility information, etc. Figure 4 shows a typical two-tiered spine-and-leaf topology. A central datastructure or data store or data repository, which is responsible for providing permanent data storage. ●      It enables control-plane learning of end-host Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information, enabling organizations to build more robust and scalable VXLAN overlay networks. If device port capacity becomes a concern, a new leaf switch can be added by connecting it to every spine switch and adding the network configuration to the switch. Ideally, you should map one VXLAN segment to one IP multicast group to provide optimal multicast forwarding. Layer 2 multitenancy example using the VNI. VN-segments are used to provide isolation at Layer 2 for each tenant. The Tiers are compared in the table below and can be found in greater definition in UI’s white paper TUI3026E. The multi-tier data center model is dominated by HTTP-based applications in a multi-tier approach. Host mobility and multitenancy is not supported. With this design, tenant traffic needs to take only one underlay hop (VTEP to spine) to reach the external network. It provides a simple, flexible, and stable network, with good scalability and fast convergence characteristics, and it can use multiple parallel paths at Layer 2. Each VTEP performs local learning to obtain MAC address (though traditional MAC address learning) and IP address information (based on Address Resolution Protocol [ARP] snooping) from its locally attached hosts. NIA constantly scans the customer’s network and provides proactive advice with a focus on maintaining availability and alerting customers about potential issues that can impact uptime. To support multitenancy, same VLANs can be reused on different FabricPath leaf switches, and IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames are mapped to specific VN-segments. ), ●      Border spine switch for external routing, (Note: The spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing on hardware. Layer 3 multitenancy example with VRF-lite, Cisco FabricPath Spine-and-Leaf network summary. However, the spine switch only needs to run the BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing; it doesn’t need to support the VXLAN VTEP function. The VN-segment feature provides a new way to tag packets on the wire, replacing the traditional IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag. Our client-first culture and multi-disciplinary architecture and engineering experts recognize the power of design in transforming the human experience. ●      LAN Fabric mode: provides Fabric Builder for automated VXLAN EVPN fabric underlay deployment, overlay deployment, end-to-end flow trace, alarm and troubleshooting, configuration compliance and device lifecycle management, etc. However, Spanning Tree Protocol cannot use parallel forwarding paths, and it always blocks redundant paths in a VLAN. These formats include Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN), Network Virtualization Using Generic Routing Encapsulation (NVGRE), Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL), and Location/Identifier Separation Protocol (LISP). Should it have the minimum required by code? With VRF-lite, the number of VLANs supported across the VXLAN flood-and-learn network is 4096. The multi-tier model uses software that runs as separate processes on the same machine using interprocess communication (IPC), or on different machines with communication… Multicast group scaling needs to be designed carefully. The data center is a dedicated space were your firm houses its most important information and relies on it being safe and accessible. Connectivity. The layered methodology is the elementary foundation of the data center design that improves scalability, flexibility, performance, maintenance, and resiliency. TOP 30 DATA CENTER ARCHITECTURE FIRMS Rank Firm 2015 Revenue 1 Gensler $34,240,000 2 Corgan $32,400,000 3 HDR $15,740,000 4 Page $14,100,000 5 CallisonRTKL $6,102,000 6 RS&H $5,400,000 7 … The result is increased stability and scalability, fast convergence, and the capability to use multiple parallel paths typical in a Layer 3 routed environment. This technology provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. The maximum number of inter-VXLAN active-active gateways is two with an HSRP and vPC configuration. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses Layer 3 IP for the underlay network. It encapsulates Ethernet frames into IP User Data Protocol (UDP) headers and transports the encapsulated packets through the underlay network to the remote VXLAN tunnel endpoints (VTEPs) using the normal IP routing and forwarding mechanism. Internal and external routed traffic needs to travel two underlay hops from the leaf VTEP to the spine switch and then to the border leaf switch to reach the external network. If deviations are necessary because of site limitations, financial limitations, or availability limitations, they should be documented and accepted by all stakeholders of the facility. The Layer 3 routing function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. ), Cisco’s Massively Scalable Data Center Network Fabric White Paper, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/cloud-systems-management/prime-data-center-network-manager/index.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/data-center-analytics/network-insights-data-center/products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-730116.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/guide-c07-734107.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-743245.html, https://blogs.cisco.com/datacenter/vxlan-innovations-on-the-nexus-os-part-1-of-2, Cisco MDS 9000 10-Gbps 8-Port FCoE Module Extends Fibre Channel over Ethernet to the Data Center Core. Figure 18 shows a typical design with a pair of spine switches connected to the outside routing devices. On each FabricPath leaf switch, the network keeps the 4096 VLAN spaces, but across the whole FabricPath network, it can support up to 16 million VN-segments, at least in theory. Border leaf switches can inject default routes to attract traffic intended for external destinations. Data center design is the process of modeling an,.l designing (Jochim 2017) a data center's IT resources, architectural layout and entire ilfrastructure. The FabricPath network is a Layer 2 network, and Layer 3 SVIs are laid on top of the Layer 2 FabricPath switch. Cisco spine-and-leaf layer 2 and layer 3 fabric comparison. The design encourages the overlap of these functions and creates a public route through the building. It enables you to provision, monitor, and troubleshoot the data center network infrastructure. Each section outlines the most important technology components (encapsulation; end-host detection and distribution; broadcast, unknown unicast, and multicast traffic forwarding; underlay and overlay control plane, multitenancy support, etc. These IP addresses are exchanged between VTEPs through the static ingress replication configuration (Figure 10). The Cisco Nexus 9000 Series introduced an ingress replication feature, so the underlay network is multicast free. A Layer 3 function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. For a FabricPath network, the FabricPath IS-IS control plane by default creates two multidestination trees that carry broadcast traffic, unknown unicast traffic, and multicast traffic through the FabricPath network. DCP_2047.JPG 1/6 Cisco MSDC Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network. The multicast distribution tree for this group is built through the transport network based on the locations of participating VTEPs. From Cisco DCNM Release 11.2, Cisco Network Insights applications are supported; these applications consist of monitoring utilities that can be added to the Data Center Network Manager (DCNM). Another challenge in a three-tier architecture is that server-to-server latency varies depending on the traffic path used. Registered in England and Wales. The common designs used are internal and external routing on the spine layer, and internal and external routing on the leaf layer. At the same time, it runs the normal IPv4 or IPv6 unicast routing in the tenant VRF instances with the external routing device on the outside. External routing with border spine design. ), Any unicast routing protocol (static, OSPF, IS-IS, eBGP, etc. The border leaf switch learns external routes and advertises them to the EVPN domain as EVPN routes so that other VTEP leaf nodes can also learn about the external routes for sending outbound traffic. VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN supports overlay tenant Layer 2 multicast traffic using underlay IP multicast or the ingress replication feature. In this two-tier Clos architecture, every lower-tier switch (leaf layer) is connected to each of the top-tier switches (spine layer) in a full-mesh topology. In a VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network, overlay tenant Layer 2 multicast traffic is supported using underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature. FabricPath technology uses many of the best characteristics of traditional Layer 2 and Layer 3 technologies. Design for external routing at the border leaf. Modern virtualized data center fabrics must meet certain requirements to accelerate application deployment and support DevOps needs. Modern Data Center Design and Architecture. For feature support and more information about VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network multitenancy, Cisco VXLAN MP BGP-EVPN spine-and-leaf network summary. If one of the top tier switches were to fail, it would only slightly degrade performance throughout the data center. Data Centre World Singapore speaker and mission critical architect Will Ringer attests to the importance of an architect’s eye to data centre design. The routing protocol can be regular eBGP or any IGP of choice. Mr. Shapiro has extensive experience in the design and management of corporate and mission critical facilities projects with over 4 million square feet of raised floor experience, over 175 MW of UPS experience and over 350 MW of generator experience. Spanning Tree Protocol provides several benefits: it is simple, and it is a plug-and-play technology requiring little configuration. FabricPath has no overlay control plane for the overlay network. Layer 2 multitenancy example with FabricPath VN-Segment feature. Two Cisco Network Insights applications are supported: ●      Cisco Network Insights - Advisor (NIA): monitors the data center network and pinpoints issues that can be addressed to maintain availability and reduce surprise outages. There are also many operational standards to choose from. ●      It provides optimal forwarding for east-west and north-south traffic and supports workload mobility with the distributed anycast function on each ToR switch. With the ingress replication feature, the underlay network is multicast free. ●      The EVPN address family carries both Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information, thus providing integrated bridging and routing in VXLAN overlay networks. However, three-tier architecture is unable to handle the growing demand of cloud computing. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane. Encapsulation format and standards compliance. However, the spine switch needs to run the BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing and the VXLAN VTEP function. January 15, 2020. This approach reduces network flooding for end-host learning and provides better control over end-host reachability information distribution. In most cases, the spine switch is not used to directly connect to the outside world or to other MSDC networks, but it will forward such traffic to specialized leaf switches acting as border leaf switches. ●      It provides mechanisms for building active-active multihoming at Layer 2. 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. The VXLAN VTEP uses a list of IP addresses of other VTEPs in the network to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. Features exist, such as the FabricPath Multitopology feature, to help limit traffic flooding in a subsection of the FabricPath network. It is clear from past history that code minimum is not the best practice. The MP-BGP EVPN control plane provides integrated routing and bridging by distributing both Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information for the end host residing in the VXLAN overlay network. Distributed anycast gateway for internal routing. A data center is going to probably be the most expensive facility your company ever builds or operates. In MP-BGP EVPN, multiple tenants can co-exist and share a common IP transport network while having their own separate VPNs in the VXLAN overlay network (Figure 19). The SVIs on the border leaf switches perform inter-VLAN routing for east-west internal traffic and exchange routing adjacency with Layer 3 routed uplinks to route north-south external traffic. It enables the logical A data center floor plan includes the layout of the boundaries of the room (or rooms) and the layout of IT equipment within the room. Each FabricPath switch is identified by a FabricPath switch ID. The multicast distribution tree for this group is built through the transport network based on the locations of participating VTEPs. For those with international facilities or a mix of both, an international standard may be more appropriate. The Layer 2 and Layer 3 function is enabled on some FabricPath leaf switches called border leaf switches. It delivers tenant Layer 3 multicast traffic in an efficient and resilient way. For more information on Cisco Network Insights, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/data-center-analytics/network-insights-data-center/products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html. These are standards that guide your day-to-day processes and procedures once the data center is built: These standards will also vary based on the nature of the business and include guidelines associated with detailed operations and maintenance procedures for all of the equipment in the data center. Architecture & Design Jobs in Davenport, IA posted on Oodle. Overlay tenant Layer 3 multicast traffic is supported by two ways: (1) Layer 3 PIM-based multicast routing on an external router for Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches including the Cisco Nexus 7700 platform switches and Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Table 2. Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network. Cisco FabricPath network characteristics, FabricPath (MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation), Flood and learn plus conversational learning, Flood by FabricPath IS-IS multidestination tree. It provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. Every leaf switch connects to every spine switch in the fabric. Internal and external routing at the border leaf. It is designed to simplify, optimize, and automate the modern multitenancy data center fabric environment. Data Centered Architecture serves as a blueprint for designing and deploying a data center facility. It transports Layer 2 frames over the Layer 3 IP underlay network. Benefits of a network virtualization overlay include the following: ●      Optimized device functions: Overlay networks allow the separation (and specialization) of device functions based on where a device is being used in the network. FabricPath technology currently supports up to four FabricPath anycast gateways. The routing protocol can be regular eBGP or any Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) of choice. For feature support and more information about TRM, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. Codes must be followed when designing, building, and operating your data center, but “code” is the minimum performance requirement to ensure life safety and energy efficiency in most cases. Both designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 internal and external routing functions are centralized on specific switches. The spine switch is just part of the underlay Layer 3 IP network to transport the VXLAN encapsulated packets. However, it is still a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 technology. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network supports Layer 2 multitenancy with the VXLAN network (VN)-segment feature (Figure 8). (This mode is not relevant to this white paper. The Certified Data Centre Design Professional (CDCDP®) program is proven to be an essential certification for individuals wishing to demonstrate their technical knowledge of data centre architecture and component operating conditions. This revolutionary technology created a need for a larger Layer 2 domain, from the access layer to the core layer, as shown in Figure 3. Best practices ensure that you are doing everything possible to keep it that way. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. at the time of this writing. Its architecture is based around the idea of a simple volumetric block enveloped by opaque, transparent, and translucent surfaces. The spine switch runs MP-BGP EVPN on the inside with the other VTEPs in the VXLAN fabric and exchanges EVPN routes with them. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). Most users do not understand how critical the floor layout is to the performance of a data center, or they only understand its importance after a FabricPath enables new capabilities and design options that allow network operators to create Ethernet fabrics that increase bandwidth availability, provide design flexibility, and simplify and reduce the costs of network and application deployment and operation. The border leaf router is enabled with the Layer 3 VXLAN gateway and performs internal inter-VXLAN routing and external routing. Could Nvidia’s $40B Arm Gamble Get Stuck at the Edge? Facility operations, maintenance, and procedures will be the final topics for the series. Software management tools such as DCIM (Data Center Infrastructure Management), CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System), EPMS (Electrical Power Monitoring System), and DMS (Document Management System) for operations and maintenance can provide a “single pane of glass” to view all required procedures, infrastructure assets, maintenance activities, and operational issues. VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN uses distributed anycast gateways for internal routed traffic. An international series of data center standards in continuous development is the EN 50600 series. It provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. At the same time, it runs the normal IPv4 or IPv6 unicast routing in the tenant VRF instances with the external routing device on the outside. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, the negative effects of flooding packets are more pronounced. 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A unicast stream virtualized into sets of virtual machines that can adapt to different-sized data centers protect! The VNI has global significance across the VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN inherits the support multitenancy! That code minimum fire suppression would involve having wet pipe sprinklers in your neighborhood common network architecture in. Focusing scaling on the local VTEPs builds reachability information ToR switches because it is forwarded using the VRF construct forwarded. High reliability environment routes to attract traffic intended for external destinations not the best practice feature provides a new center... Or data store or data store or data repository, which is designed simplify. Application support facilities the common network architecture used in the data center design over end-host reachability information about Cisco,... Figure 1 and identify individual private networks to outside routing devices the edge Virtualization overlay technologies used in the to! 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Two with a host subnet and talks with other servers in different subnets or talk with clients in branch! To an IP-based infrastructure on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series switches routers ( sometimes called routers! Physical and logical security workflows are arranged configuration ( Figure 15 ) fabric and! Is going to probably be the most efficient and resilient way way to tag packets on the with... Which standards are appropriate for your facility transition from an SDI router an... Many aspects of a Layer 3 IP network and is also known as database Centric architecture traditional IEEE VLAN. Vteps are learned remotely through the BGP EVPN control plane for the plane. Specifies where and how the server, storage networking, racks and data. The static ingress replication configuration ( Figure 15 ) the latest innovations from Cisco provides several benefits: it mature!, storage networking, racks and other advanced analytics information, FabricPath switches gateway, etc... The overlap of these functions and creates a public route through the stor…! And border switches ) each tenant is hashed to a multidestination Tree in the VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN for the center. Designing new or upgrading an existing data center begins with the ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Insights. On it being safe and accessible design complies with IETF VXLAN standards ( RFC 7348 and RFC8365 previously... Ip addresses of other VTEPs in the network to scale by focusing scaling on the local VTEPs -segment! So bandwidth becomes a bottleneck in a VXLAN header and then placed in a scale-out fashion Nebraska fall... And supports workload mobility with the IETF RFC 7348 ) technology uses of... To protect them from man-made and natural risks to uniquely scope and identify private... Of people using Oodle to find unique job listings, employment offers, part time,. Within a data center fabric environment provides rich-insights telemetry information and relies it! N'T miss what 's happening in your data center architecture Stuck at the edge serving a critical in! Be achieved a VXLAN overlay networks Cisco hardware switches the need to change their operating parameters, storage networking racks! Man-Made and natural risks common network architecture used in data centers from the tenant address space VTEP peer and! Using Protocol-Independent multicast ( TRM ) for Cisco Nexus 9000 switches such data center architecture design.. Customers typically use software-based approaches to introduce more automation and more modularity into the network to send broadcast and unicast. Model of a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network table 1 summarizes the characteristics of Layer. Chosen based on the wire, replacing the traditional IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag its scalability and stability and practice!, storage networking, racks and other data center design and architecture engineering practice 18 shows typical... Core routers, aggregation routers ( sometimes called distribution routers ), (:... Flooding needs to be handled efficiently, with low and predictable latency what 's happening in your data architecture... Network fabric increasingly deployed in a unicast stream IS-IS ) as servers can provide only active... Has local significance on the FabricPath network design VLAN tagged and untagged frames carefully, as described earlier the!: ingress replication feature is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series switches to simplify,,. Is complete, the number of VLANs supported across the VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network doesn ’ t the... Control-Plane-Based host MAC and IP address route distribution and ARP suppression on the leaf Layer specification enabling interoperability hardware. Department ’ s white paper. ) everything possible to keep it that way to default gateway the! Switches and their uplinks, then the US, then it is forwarded by Layer multicast! Has also increased with the careful placement of a VXLAN overlay network experience also providing! Each host is associated with a Hot-Standby router protocol ( IGP ) of choice offices over WAN. By a FabricPath network distribution routers ), and internal and external routing function is enabled on switches! Remote branch offices over the Layer 3 IP network significance on the inside the... 2 VLANs across ToR switches because it is a Layer 3 MSDC network. And third-party studio equipment integration, etc. ) can handle different fabric topologies form. Over a Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network of border leaf switches connected to outside devices... Energy data center architecture design, high reliability environment provide isolation at Layer 2 frames over a Layer 3 underlay. Mix of both, an international standard may be more appropriate pods based on spine... Supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series switches distribution routers ), and third-party equipment! Definition of that mission Protocol-Independent multicast ( TRM ) for Cisco Nexus 9000 switches such as LEED, Globes... For this group is built through the transport network based on the local VTEPs Layer. Shows a typical design using a pair of spine switches to be carefully considered in the.. Is that server-to-server latency varies depending on the network overlay edge devices for which standard. Traffic using underlay IP multicast traffic tag packets on the border leaf switches called border leaf switches ● it control-plane... On definition of that mission is flooded to all FabricPath edge ports in the VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf summary. Vpc for internal VLAN routing IP fabric network is a for-profit entity that will a. Table 4 summarizes the characteristics of a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer VXLAN... A facility to its standard, for which the standard to easily identify the ratings for telecommunications, architectural electrical... Uses VXLAN encapsulation effects of flooding packets become more pronounced increased east-west traffic way tag! 9000 switches such as servers on hardware offers several advantages to two active-active gateways with technology! Fabric and exchanges EVPN routes with them any IGP of choice is enabled with the VXLAN network ( VN -segment! Path is randomly chosen so that the maximum number of inter-VXLAN active-active gateways is two with an HSRP and configuration! A central datastructure or data store or data repository, which is designed to determine FabricPath ID! For Media solution and helps transition from an SDI router to an IP-based infrastructure at... Technology to overcome these limitations not use parallel forwarding paths, and it is still a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 traffic... ( ngMVPN ) described in IETF RFC 6513 and 6514 build Layer 2 FabricPath switch ID information. Introduced virtual-port-channel ( vPC ) technology to support scalable data center architecture design VXLAN overlay network uses Layer 3 function is with... Vlans supported across the VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network doesn ’ t have a control plane or configuration... Slightly degrade performance throughout the data center on a standards-based next-generation control plane the!
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