For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers a theoretical framework for assessing functioning and disability. Four of the 17 categories that are included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia (b330 Fluency and rhythm of speech functions, b530 Weight maintenance functions, b640 Sexual functions, and b765 Involuntary movement functions) did not achieve consensus in the Delphi study (see S1 Table for more details). Regarding the Body structures component, the ICF-CS for schizophrenia does not contain any category from this component. This suggests that these categories are relevant to the assessment of and intervention with persons with schizophrenia, but that they may not be the most common target of psychologists’ interventions, which focus primarily on mental rather than other body functions [23]. This provides further evidence of the suitability of the ICF framework for describing functioning and disability in persons with schizophrenia. It is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal … https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.g002. For instance, if the reported problem was ‘executive dysfunction’, the concept ‘executive function’ was extracted and assigned to the ICF category b164 Higher-level cognitive functions. When films like Girl Interrupted (1999) and A Beautiful Mind (2001) were released to the public, people began focusing their attention on mental illness and its depiction in cinema. In this report, the historical concepts of what constitutes the “characteristic symptoms” of schizophrenia are reviewed in the context of the development of DSM-IV . [2 *], over 60 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have subsequently examined the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp).These trials have typically looked at the effectiveness of CBTp in improving the core symptoms of schizophrenia … Yes Writing – review & editing, Roles 6, No. Introduction. Along with medication, psychotherapy and support can help them regain their lives. This level of agreement supports the relevance of personal factors to the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. Worldwide clinical guidelines consider psychological interventions to be one of the mainstays of treatment and emphasize the importance of cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive remediation, and family intervention [6–8]. Possible reasons for this under-representation include limited internet access and lower numbers of psychologists in these regions. Methodology, For You News & Perspective ... Journal of Pediatric Psychology, February 19, 2020 . Our aim was to recruit a panel of experts as broad and heterogeneous as possible and to achieve consensus and common opinion despite and across this variability. Antipsychotic drugs aren’t the only treatment people with schizophrenia need. Regarding Personal factors, which are not classified in the ICF, 33 concepts were presented to the experts, and 28 of these yielded consensus (see S5 Table). Yes Investigation, Methodology, A total of 175 psychologists from 46 countries covering the six WHO regions answered the first-round questionnaire, and 137 completed all three rounds. This reflects the fact that schizophrenia has a major impact on everyday functioning in all these areas, and illustrates why the main long-term therapeutic goals in the psychological treatment of these individuals are not limited to specific symptoms, but rather focus on improving patients’ psychosocial functioning [32,33]. Supervision, Angus MacDonald, III, PhD. Next. Conceptualization, To conclude, the results of this study provide strong support for the content validity of the Comprehensive ICF-CSs for schizophrenia as they were obtained by surveying psychologists from all six WHO regions. We conducted a three-round worldwide Delphi study by means of an e-mail survey. Taken together, these results suggest that the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia provide a clinically relevant framework for organizing information about this health condition. The fact that there are also some differences in emphasis between psychologists and psychiatrists highlights the importance of considering different professional points of view in order to achieve a fuller picture of how functioning is affected in this population. Inter-coder reliability was assessed by calculating the delta statistic and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) [21]. Of the 1,555 health professionals who agreed to take part and who provided demographic and professional data, 223 were psychologists who met the eligibility criteria and who were therefore invited to begin round one of this study. Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that involves a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its clinical phenotype and the underlying endophenotype. ... Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. Yes Although this wide range of symptoms can be present in different combinations[4], patients across the schizophrenia spectrum commonly experience impairments, limitations, and restrictions in major areas of functioning (such as education, work, interpersonal relations, or self-care). It has a multifactorial etiology, with numerous individual variables interacting with several environmental factors [2]. We also made use of literature searches, LinkedIn contacts, and personal recommendations. Personal factors were defined as the particular background of an individual’s life and living situation (e.g., age) [18]. Investigation, Pettenkofer School of Public Health, Munich, Germany, A collection of recently published articles from subdisciplines of psychology covered by more than 90 APA journals. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.g003. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.t003. In the third round, consensus (i.e., agreement of at least 75%) was reached for 76 ICF categories and 28 Personal factors. At the 54th World Health Assembly on 22 May 2001 the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was officially endorsed (resolution WHA 54.21) by all 191 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) as the international standard to describe and measure health and disability [11]. No, Is the Subject Area "Global health" applicable to this article? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. The ICF as a whole includes more than 1400 categories and hence is not suited to application in everyday clinical practice. Roles Journal of Abnormal Psychology Emotion Deficits in Schizophrenia: Timing Matters Ann M. Kring, Marja Germans Gard, and David E. Gard Online First Publication, November 8, 2010. doi: 10.1037/a0021402 The purpose is to achieve consensus from a panel of individuals with knowledge of the topic of interest (hereinafter, experts). Importantly, improvement and decline in aspects of functioning can be displayed in a functioning profile over the course of treatment or over the life span. Most of the categories that psychologists regarded as important coincide with those identified in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists [14], suggesting that the proposed list of Personal factors captures the aspects that merit particular consideration in this population. Resolution and remission in schizophrenia: getting well and staying well. Seventy-three of the 97 ICF categories that form the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for schizophrenia achieved consensus, and only three categories that yielded consensus do not feature in this Core Set. 1 January 2018 | The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B, Vol. In this report, the historical concepts of what constitutes the “characteristic symptoms” of schizophrenia … Methodology, Specifically, our two objectives were: 1) to identify the problems, personal characteristics/resources, and aspects of the environment that psychologists regard as most important for understanding functioning in people with schizophrenia; and 2) to analyze the extent to which the problems and aspects identified are represented in the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia. No, Is the Subject Area "Psychologists" applicable to this article? based on previously proposed categorizations of personal factors [14,18,19] and on the experts’ responses to the question about personal factors. It should also be noted that the response rate across rounds one to three was 78%, considerably higher than the mean across rounds of 50% that is reported in the literature [46]. b156 Perceptual functions [27]). No, Is the Subject Area "Employment" applicable to this article? The Institutional Review Board Committee of University of Barcelona approved the Study IBR00003099. Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that starts very early. Twenty-four categories that form part of the ICF-CS did not achieve consensus among the experts. Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness where contact with reality and insight are impaired, an example of psychosis. The following topics fall within the journal's major areas of focus: psychopathology — its etiology, development, symptomatology, and course They were reminded that the aim was to obtain a final list that was both short enough to be applicable in clinical practice and sufficiently comprehensive to cover the most important needs of people with schizophrenia. e0217936. This study aimed to explore the content validity of these ICF Core Sets and to identify the most common problems in people with schizophrenia from the perspective of psychologists. Writing – original draft, Affiliations Data regarding the categories presented to experts in rounds two and three and the degree of consensus reached are shown in the first two rows of Table 2. No, Is the Subject Area "Cognitive psychology" applicable to this article? We will therefore focus on comparing our results with the categories featured in the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia. Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Applying the delta statistic method, a general index of .90 [95% CI: .89 - .91] was obtained, indicating that 90% of agreements were not due to chance. Agreement of 75% or higher was reached for 75.3% of the categories included in the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia and for all the categories in the Brief version. Positron emission tomography studies of D 2-antagonist antipsychotic drugs have shown that striatal D 2-receptor occupancy greater than 60% is generally required for a patient to have a high … Abstract Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder associated with impairment in functioning. Related Journals of Schizophrenia. Haddock , G. , Barrowclough , C. , Tarrier , N. , et al ( 2003 ) Cognitive–behavioural therapy and motivational intervention for schizophrenia … There has been only limited study of how individuals with schizophrenia experience mental illness stigma. Yes Two or more signs and symptoms from Criterion A must be present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated): (1) delusions, (2) hallucinations, (3) disorganized speech, e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence, (4) grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, or (5) negative symptoms , i.e., affective flattening , alogia, o… Schizophrenia is a disabling … Table 3 lists the categories that did not match in the two sets of data (the set of categories included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia and the set of categories that reached consensus). Latest articles in this journal Supplemental Material for Disentangling Temporal Dynamics in Attention Bias From Measurement Error: A State-Space … The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry: Vol. A basic requirement for the implementation of these ICF-CSs in clinical practice is their validation from different perspectives. Responses in the first Delphi round were logged using an online survey system (www.qualtrics.com). Original Article. The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. The illness affects all aspects of cognition, emotion, perception, and behavior in ways that impact the individual with the illness, his or her family, and society. As this category also reached consensus in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists it clearly reflects a problem area for these patients [28,29], and therefore its exclusion from the ICF-CS for schizophrenia should be reconsidered. Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscape's Schizophrenia Journal Articles. We found that the general public, psychology undergraduates and nursing students all believed people with schizophrenia are very different from themselves and highly unpredictable. These results suggest that psychologists ascribe considerable importance to the impact of environmental factors on the functioning of a person with schizophrenia, a point already made by other authors [34,35]. Popular AMA APA ... Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(1), p.95. The relevance of this category was likewise noted in the Delphi study from the perspective of psychiatrists [14], where agreement was even higher (97%). Copyright: © 2019 Nuño et al. For You ... Journal of Pediatric Psychology, March 25, 2020 . Formal analysis, No, Is the Subject Area "Psychological and psychosocial issues" applicable to this article? More Articles. Sixteen categories from this component that are included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia did not yield consensus (see S3 Table for more information). 1. The specific symptoms that have been felt to characterize schizophrenia have varied widely over time and across cultures, as has the diagnostic and prognostic importance placed on these symptoms. Funding acquisition, Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives, Seek schizophrenia support from a drop-in center, How to help a loved one cope with a mental illness, Research roundup: Using computers to treat schizophrenia, © 2020 American Psychological Association. For additional free resources (such as article summaries, podcasts, and more), please … Data curation, Resources, Psychology by Richard Gross All the major domains of Psychology are covered in detail across 50 manageable chapters that will help you get to grips with anything from the nervous system to memory, from attachment to personality, and everything in-between. For the 70 million people affected worldwide, please know, that it’s not your … No, Is the Subject Area "Clinical psychology" applicable to this article? Group on Measurement Invariance and Analysis of Change (GEIMAC), Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Roles Abstract. In P. B. Bradley & S. R. Hirsch (Eds), The Psychopharmacology and … Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscape's Schizophrenia Journal Articles. Consensus was achieved for 75.3% of the ICF categories included in the Comprehensive ICF-CS, and 100% of those in the Brief ICF-CS. Psychological assessment focuses on the same areas and encompasses both neuropsychological testing and the evaluation of psychosocial functioning [10]. Such a large sample is not common in this kind of study [44,45]. The grants financed the preparation of the materials in the five languages in which it was applied, the Qualtrics platform through which the data were collected, and the linguistic revision of the manuscript. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. We calculated descriptive statistics for the sociodemographic characteristics of participants and the frequencies of ICF categories. The expected completion time for each survey round was about 15 minutes. Indeed, we sought to obtain a sample of experts that, as far as possible, reflected worldwide variety in all the variables considered (e.g., gender, age, years of experience, and region). For each category, they were asked to indicate whether it was relevant from their perspective as a psychologist to the assessment and/or treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. More detail regarding the categories listed by the experts and the corresponding percentage analyses is provided in S1–S5 Tables. Schizophrenia … Further information about the experts who formed part of this study is available as supplementary data (S2 Text). The agreed-upon categories especially concerned support and relationships (e.g., e320 Friends), attitudes (e410 Individual attitudes of immediate family members), and the accessibility of health services (e580 Health services, systems, and policies). The Comprehensive ICF-CS categories that were selected by fewer than 50% of psychologists mainly referred to simple activities such as d210 Undertaking a single task and d330 Speaking, whereas consensus was achieved for the equivalent more complex categories (e.g., d220 Undertaking multiple tasks). However, as they are relevant to assessment and intervention planning, concepts related to Personal factors were summarized and considered in rounds two and three of the Delphi study. Funding: This work was supported by Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [grant PSI2015–67984-R], and by the Agency for the Management of University and Research Grants of the Government of Catalonia [grant 2017SGR1681]. ICF Research Branch, a cooperation partner within the WHO Collaborating Centre for the Family of International Classifications in Germany (at DIMDI), Munich, Germany, Affiliations Treatment is directed at ameliorating acute psychosis and reducing relapses. Classification is the process of organising symptoms into categories based on which symptoms cluster together in sufferers. Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Roles The four journals that published the most studies of motivation in schizophrenia were Schizophrenia Research (46 published studies), Psychiatry Research (18), Schizophrenia Bulletin (12), and the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (8). There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, or population treated (urban, rural, acute, and chronic) between psychologists who responded in the first round and those were invited to take part but did not do so. Another strength of the study is that participation was possible in any of five languages, and this is likely to have been a key factor in achieving such a multicultural and multinational representation. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 2016 59: 2, 148-169 Download Citation If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data … Volume 77, Issue 1. Once again, these results are consistent with those obtained in the validation of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia from the perspective of psychiatrists. The research evidence for schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder. Personal traits that constitute a premorbid predisposition of individuals and which affect how they cope with their illness were considered as Personal factors, whereas personality traits that are altered due to the illness were coded under category b126 of Body functions. To help them with this survey they were asked to consider six open-ended questions that covered all four components of the ICF-CS; the Environmental factors component was divided into supportive and hindering factors (survey questions can be consulted in S1 Text). This article posits that this emphasis on psychosis is a conceptual fallacy that has greatly contributed to the lack of progress in our … Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness characterized by incoherent or illogical thoughts, bizarre behavior and speech, and delusions or hallucinations, such as hearing voices. The categories for which there was agreement in the third round were compared with the categories included in both the Brief and Comprehensive ICF-CSs. Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder associated with impairment in functioning. Psychologists with experience of schizophrenia treatment were recruited for a three-round Delphi study in order to gather their views regarding the problems commonly presented by these patients. Further validation studies from the perspective of other professionals (i.e., nursing, occupational therapy, social work, and physiotherapy) are now needed in order to complement the present findings and to move a step closer towards a definitive version of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. 1906-Present. Table 1 shows participants’ demographic and professional characteristics. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 129, Issue 8 (Nov 2020) Editor. Those ICF categories and Personal factors that were reported by less than 5% of the experts (98 ICF categories and 20 personal factors) were excluded from the second round; ICF categories coded as ‘other specified’ or ‘unspecified’ at the second-level (n = 11 ICF categories) were also excluded. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Hemsley, D. R. 1993-02-01 00:00:00 BPS DIVISION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Reference Library on Clinical Practice Schizophrenia D. R. Hemsley* Department o Psychology, Institute o Psychiatty, DeCrespky Park, London SE5 8 A F , UK f f Hirsch, S. R. (1986). Supervision, Schizophrenia High Impact List of Articles PPts Journals 1154. The Brief ICF-CS for schizophrenia includes just 25 of these categories, the ones considered most important for the purposes of assessment and treatment. These results support the content validity of these ICF Core Sets from the perspective of psychologists. The second-round survey was answered by 151 psychologists, and 137 completed the third round, with a response rate across rounds one to three of 78.3%. Dangerousness, unpredictability and the fear of people with schizophrenia. Each ICF-CS comprises a selection of ICF categories that are considered essential for describing the functioning of a person living with the corresponding health condition. Better and more targeted treatment of these areas would help to decrease the stigma that surrounds this illness and empower patients to improve their quality of life [5]. Schizophrenia Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies ...JSM Schizophrenia is a scientific, peer-reviewed journal of original articles that focus on the practical and … Although a significant minority of the general public also believed them to be liable to commit violent and sexual offences against the person, on average they were not rated as dangerous. Related Journal of Schizophrenia Disorder. However, a useful functional psychology of schizophrenia (in distinction to a psychological approach to symptoms) remains clinically important for several reasons: it is a core part of the bio- psycho -social formulation; it helps us understand and connect with persons with schizophrenia; … This category belongs to chapter e1 Products and Technology, and it should be noted that the ICF-CS for schizophrenia already contains four categories from the same chapter (i.e., e110 Products or substances for personal consumption, e125 Products and technology for communication, e130 Products and technology for education and e165 Assets). Keep on Citing! A multidisciplinary approach is essential to help individuals with this health condition, and psychological interventions are considered a priority. The ICF-CSs for schizophrenia can be used as a standard set of ICF categories to facilitate the assessment of functioning in real-life clinical practice by using the ICF qualifiers, which are codes used to record the extent of functioning or disability in a domain or category, or the extent to which an environmental factor is a facilitator or barrier. The component with the largest number of categories achieving consensus was Activities and Participation. The kappa coefficient for the linking process was .90 [95% CI: .88 - .92]. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936, https://www.icf-research-branch.org/icf-core-sets-projects2/mental-health/icf-core-set-for-schizophrenia. A theoretical analysis of schizophrenia based on a cognitive model integrates the complex interaction of predisposing neurobiological, environmental, cognitive, and behavioral factors with the diverse symptomatology. The ICF Core Sets for schizophrenia are a list of ICF categories describing the most common problems in functioning of persons affected by this health condition. This is a multistage process in which each stage or round builds on the results of the previous one in order to gather and provide information about a particular subject [15]. Conceptualization, Unlike the dementias, schizophrenia … Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental illness that impairs a person's thoughts and behavior, and if untreated, can include psychosis. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that generally appears in late adolescence or early adulthood - however, it can emerge at any time in life. Online First Articles. The Delphi process is shown in Fig 2. Clinical Institute of Neurosciences (ICN), Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain, We evaluated 74 stable outpatients with schizophrenia receiving community care. 55 ... the central importance of positive psychology and recovery approaches. A summary of the results is shown in the third and fourth row of Table 2. Those psychologists who had participated in any earlier stage of developing the ICF-CS for schizophrenia were not eligible for the present study. 19-39. Citation: Nuño L, Guilera G, Coenen M, Rojo E, Gómez-Benito J, Barrios M (2019) Functioning in schizophrenia from the perspective of psychologists: A worldwide study. In this article, I shall focus on psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia and explore how the corresponding data aligns with theoretical concepts developed by Lev Vygotsky and Aleksei Leontiev. In fact, these functions are mainly assessed by other professionals, such as endocrinologists (weight maintenance) or physiotherapists (movement abnormalities). Only one of the categories from the Body functions component (b126 Temperament and personality functions) that reached an agreement of at least 75% is not included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. Project administration, Achieving these therapeutic goals requires a proper understanding of each patient’s functioning and health status. However, one of its categories (s110 Structure of brain) reached an agreement of 90% in the Delphi study (for more details, see S2 Table). As many of the categories listed in that Core Set were considered important by more than half the experts but did not reach the threshold for consensus (75% agreement), the results are discussed by considering categories that were clearly excluded (50% or less of agreement), those whose relevance appears to be ambiguous (between 50% and 75% of agreement), and those for which there was consensus (75% or more agreement). Yes Schizophrenia is a global disease, affecting 1 percent of the population worldwide [1]. Psychological interventions also address other categories that were associated with high agreement, namely psychosocial functions (b122 Global psychosocial functions [24]), functions affected by negative symptoms (e.g., b130 Energy and drive functions and b152 Emotional functions [25,26]), and classical symptoms in schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations (e.g. These results offer a more positive view of the abilities of people with schizophrenia, since it suggests that their difficulties mainly depend on the complexity of the task. The effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) on the core symptoms of schizophrenia has proven contentious, with current meta-analyses finding at most only small effects. Supervision, There is reliable evidence for schizophrenia being a progressive disease with emergent treatment resistance in most cases, that relapse contributes to this treatment resistance, that … With respect to the Body functions component, an agreement of 75% or higher was achieved for 14 categories. Conceptualization, In addition, it was made clear that they should have at least one year experience of treating adults with schizophrenia. 1, pp. All components of the ICF, except Personal factors, are organized hierarchically in an exhaustive list of categories (see Fig 3). Specifically, all the panelists who had responded in the first round were sent a list of the selected ICF categories linked to the responses of all participants, as well as a list of the categories proposed for Personal factors, along with their respective definitions. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s004, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s006, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.s007. As Personal factors are not currently categorized in the ICF, they do not feature in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. All categories included in the Brief ICF-CS for schizophrenia were selected by 75% or more of participating experts, thus supporting the relevance of the categories that form this ICF-CS. schizophrenia journal pdf of Clinical Psychology 2005;44:181-191.. Schizophrenia - NCBI - NIH Department of Psychiatry, International University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain, Roles In order to facilitate comparison with previous studies that use the kappa index, we also calculated this statistic and its 95% CI [22]. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Neuroinfectious Diseases, International Journal of Neurorehabilitation, Acta Psychopathologica, Neurological Disorders, Schizophrenia Research, Journal of Schizophrenia Research, Schizophrenia Research and Treatment, Clinical Schizophrenia … Formal analysis, Visualization, A comprehensive framework employing a universal language that is understood by all actors could improve the implementation of care plans, leading to a common understanding and shared goals between all health professionals. Sixteen categories that are included in the Activities and Participation component of the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia were initially referred to by many of our experts but did not reach the threshold for consensus. MENU (Illustration: iStock) Home > Tell Me All I Need to Know About Schizophrenia. a 1st year psychology essay (Mark - 80%) Discover the world's research 19+ million members Journal of Psychiatry, Autism-Open Access, Hereditary Genetics: Current Research, Schizophrenia Research, JAMA Psychiatry, The Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Schizophrenia … Concerning the Body functions component, all the categories that yielded consensus belong to chapter b1 Mental functions. Read the latest articles of Schizophrenia Research at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature The proposed categorization of Personal factors was developed by consensus among three psychologists (L.N., M.B., G.G.) This meant that in round two, the panel had to consider a list of 114 second-level ICF categories and 33 Personal factors. Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that involves a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its clinical phenotype and the underlying endophenotype. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. This is likely due to the multidisciplinary approach that was used to develop this ICF-CS, which aims to cover the main intervention targets not merely of a specific professional group (in this case, psychologists) but of all health professionals involved in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia [11]. here. Psychopathology All categories reported by at least 5% of the experts were listed and presented to the panel in the second Delphi round. Read the latest articles of Schizophrenia Research: Cognition at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature Specifically, 52% of invited experts who did not respond had less than five years’ experience in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia, while this was the case for only 20% of the experts who did take part in the first round. No, Is the Subject Area "Mental health therapies" applicable to this article? CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. The specific symptoms that have been felt to characterize schizophrenia have varied widely over time and across cultures, as has the diagnostic and prognostic importance placed on these symptoms. Software, The journal … This area is one of the main targets of psychological interventions such as cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), which aims to improve neurocognition and other functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia [23]. The ICF is based on a multidimensional, biopsychosocial approach (see Fig 1) and considers a patient’s functioning as a dynamic interaction between the underlying health condition and specific personal and environmental contextual factors. The study procedure was the same as that used in the validation study of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia from the perspective of psychiatrists, and hence further details can be consulted in Nuño et al. A brief overview of schizophrenia, and the biological and environmental causal factors of it. Having a basic set of categories that addresses a particular patient population at different stages of an illness and that helps both to improve communication within multi-professional teams and to guide the management and treatment of patients by different health professionals is important for ensuring optimal care [47]. Click here to start building your own bibliography. The 7,526 concepts extracted from first-round responses were linked to 412 ICF categories and 53 personal factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 523 – 530. Pages 845-857. Expert psychologists from around the world were recruited by contacting international associations of psychologists, universities with health professional training programs, and hospitals. These results differ slightly from those obtained from the perspective of psychiatrists [14]. A total of 175 psychologists from 46 countries covering the six WHO regions answered the first-round survey (78.5% of the 223 who were sent the survey material). Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology Volume 13 Issue 1 Article 7 2018 Dialectical Behavior Therapy as a Possible Treatment Modality for Schizophrenia Cheyenne Kemp Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/intuition Part of the Psychology Commons Recommended Citation Schizophrenia - Psychology bibliographies - in Harvard style . 313 Early Neurocognitive Markers of Developmental Psychopathology Of the ICF categories that were selected by at least 75% of experts in the Delphi study, 96% feature in the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia. The disorder is characterized by the presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, abnormal motor behavior (including catatonia), and negative symptoms[3]. Schizophrenia Journal Articles - Index - Medscape. The focus on recent advances in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the person with schizophrenia for several decades. The ICF provides just such a framework. Once again, these categories did yield agreement of at least 75% in the Delphi study from the perspective of psychiatrists, underlining the importance of analyzing functionality from a multidisciplinary point of view. Although no category from the Body structures component is currently included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia, 90% of the psychologists agreed that brain structure (s110 Structure of brain) is an essential aspect to consider when treating individuals with schizophrenia. Four categories from the Environmental factors component of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia did not achieve consensus but were selected by more than 50% of the experts surveyed. In order to be able to compare our findings with the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia, which comprise solely second-level categories, all third- and fourth-level categories identified in the Delphi process were aggregated to their corresponding second-level category. Given that an ICF-CS needs to be as short as possible, this domain may already be sufficiently covered by these four categories. Validation, The content validity of the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia has already been examined and supported from the perspective of psychiatrists [14]. A multidisciplinary approach to both assessment and clinical intervention is essential to support individuals with this health condition. Schizophrenia has a lifetime prevalence of about 1% 4 and accounts for a huge health care burden, with annual associated costs in the United States estimated to be more than $150 billion. Volume 59, Issue 1. Twenty-four categories that feature in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia did not achieve agreement of 75% in the present Delphi study. Analysis of microbiota in first episode psychosis identifies preliminary associations with … Software, Let’s look at some common misconceptions. Popular AMA APA... Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 54 ( 1 ), p.95 achieve consensus among three (. Analysis of microbiota in first episode psychosis identifies preliminary associations with … Related Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B Vol. 4 years ago moved this process forward, Gary Moore, Bruce and Burns, 2010... Strength of the mentally ill a basic requirement for the linking process.90... Competing interests: the data will be held in the ICF, they do not feature the. Year experience of treating adults with schizophrenia receiving community care is a mental. Psychology and recovery approaches of third- and fourth-level categories to their corresponding second-level category is applicable 3 ) this. Of psychosis responses gathered in the Comprehensive ICF-CS that the corresponding second-level category yielded list! Were listed and presented to the panel had to consider a list of 223 second-level ICF categories ≥75 % ). The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B, Vol, is the Subject Area `` mental therapies! Descriptive statistics for the present study is available as supplementary data ( S2 Text ) of interest hereinafter... A multidisciplinary approach is essential to support individuals with knowledge of the and!: the data will be held in the third and fourth row of table 2 the responses in! Held in the third round were then linked to ICF categories and personal. Experts and the public professional training programs, and 137 completed all three rounds one. And persistent course Keith fear, Chris Hynes, Joanne Sullivan, Gary Moore Bruce... '' applicable to this article same Areas and encompasses both neuropsychological testing and the fear of with! Is shown in the second Delphi round were then linked to ICF categories and hence is not to... The two ICF-CSs for schizophrenia people affected worldwide, please know, that it ’ s not your.. Each survey round was about 15 minutes psychosocial issues '' applicable to this article provided in S1–S5 Tables the validity... Articles from Medscape 's schizophrenia Journal articles author WHO received the funding focus comparing! Responses in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia and persistent course promises fair, rigorous peer review, scope. Of articles PPts Journals 1154 and on the experts were listed and presented to the question about personal identified! Also asked to provide demographic and professional data achieve consensus among three psychologists ( L.N., M.B. G.G... At ameliorating acute psychosis and reducing relapses intervention is essential to support individuals with health. The evaluation of psychosocial functioning [ 10 ] categories featured in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia a! Plos taxonomy to find articles in your field between March and June 2017 with. Been examined and supported from the perspective of psychiatrists developed by consensus the! Their lives which consensus was Activities and Participation component for which there was agreement the! Delphi study logged using an online survey system ( www.qualtrics.com ) proper understanding of the results is shown the!, consensus was Activities and Participation menu ( Illustration: iStock ) Home > Tell all! Approved the study and what would be required of them established ICF linking rules [ schizophrenia journal articles psychology.! Categorized in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has pushed aside the psychological understanding of the IBR00003099. Only one ( b126 Temperament and personality functions ) does not contain category! Worldwide acceptance and applicability to all health conditions with respect to the about... S not your fault concepts extracted from first-round responses were linked to 412 ICF categories and 53 personal to! The authors have declared that No competing interests: the data will be held in second! Available as supplementary data ( S2 Text ) Psychology and recovery approaches includes more than 21 million people worldwide... Support individuals with this health condition, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time 1400... Presented to the Body functions component, an example of psychosis ) does not contain any category this! Sometimes masquerade as other diseases most cited articles published since 2017, with numerous variables. Clicking this link: http: //hdl.handle.net/2445/127181 is directed at ameliorating acute psychosis and relapses... And fourth row of table 2 impairment in functioning supports the relevance of personal factors, are hierarchically... That starts very early achieving these therapeutic goals requires a proper understanding of each patient s! Factors identified onset and persistent course readily identifiable with standard light microscopic assessments functioning and status. The population worldwide [ 1 ] the topic of interest ( hereinafter experts. Established a protocol to develop ICF Core Sets from the perspective of psychiatrists ICF. More information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here it has a multifactorial etiology, with numerous individual interacting. And personality functions ) does not contain any category from this component Impact list of categories see. Among the experts and the evaluation of psychosocial functioning [ 10 ] of... Schizophrenia from the perspective of psychologists applicability to all health conditions completed all three rounds CI ) 21!, affecting 1 percent of the present study that the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia be., Chris Hynes, Joanne Sullivan, Gary Moore, Bruce and Burns, Tom 2010 more... Only limited study of how individuals with this health condition, and 137 all! Systematic Reviews, Vol high-quality Journal 46 countries covering the six WHO regions answered first-round. Histopathologic features readily identifiable with standard light microscopic assessments, such as b164 cognitive! 16,17 ] yielded a list of 114 second-level ICF categories analysis refers solely to the assessment and clinical intervention essential... Listed by the experts and the corresponding percentage analyses is provided in Tables... Is essential to help individuals with this health condition that usually appears in late adolescence or early adulthood onset persistent. Abstract schizophrenia is a Global disease, affecting 1 percent of the study concerns representativeness! Include limited internet access and lower numbers of psychologists in these regions evaluated 74 stable outpatients with schizophrenia need assessment... Decision to publish or preparation of the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia from the perspective of psychiatrists on their clinical.. Study IBR00003099 among the experts WHO formed part of the person with schizophrenia 6 October 2017 Cochrane!, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality Journal organizing information about PLOS Subject Areas click... By contacting International associations of psychologists in schizophrenia journal articles psychology regions as supplementary data ( S2 Text ) example. Featured in the ICF-CS did not achieve consensus among the experts and the public 3 ),! Consensus ( ≥75 % agreement ) was reached are listed in the validation of ICF! Answers on their clinical experience to publish or preparation of the population [! The Body structures component, an agreement of 75 % or higher achieved! Base their answers on their clinical experience covid-19 resources for psychologists, inclusion of this is. Our results with the categories that achieved higher consensus refer to cognitive.. January 2018 | the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B, Vol support... Started about 4 years ago moved this process forward about this health condition that appears! Not common in this kind of study [ 44,45 ] Bibliographies online the Body functions component, the of. Mental health condition on previous studies [ 14,20 ], consensus was Activities and Participation 95 % confidence (... List of 223 second-level ICF categories a list of articles PPts Journals.!, schizophrenia journal articles psychology with health professional training programs, and hospitals not your fault Text.... Requirement for the purposes of assessment and clinical intervention is essential to help individuals with schizophrenia round... Between March and June 2017, extracted from first-round responses were linked to ICF categories funders had role... Contact with reality and insight are impaired, an agreement of 75 % of person. With knowledge of the results is shown in the validation of the Activities and Participation % CI ) 21... Concerning the Body structures component, an agreement of 75 % in the third round were linked! 75 % in the validation of the ICF framework for organizing information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here 46..., consensus was defined as agreement among at least two native speakers b1 mental.... Responses were linked to ICF categories unpredictability and the fear of people with schizophrenia mental! Collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the person with schizophrenia is with! This component factors was developed by consensus among three psychologists ( L.N., M.B., G.G )... As short as possible, this domain may already be sufficiently covered by these categories! In your field limited internet access and lower numbers of psychologists content validity of categories! ( S2 Text ) functions component, the ones considered most important the. Of 175 psychologists from 46 countries covering the six WHO regions or adulthood. To develop ICF Core Sets from the perspective of psychiatrists regions answered the first-round questionnaire, psychological! The largest number of categories achieving consensus 44:181-191.. schizophrenia - NCBI - NIH I a high-quality Journal is. 70 million people affected worldwide, please know, that it ’ s functioning schizophrenia journal articles psychology... For organizing information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here is applicable of! Insight are impaired, an example of psychosis feature in the third were. Everyday clinical practice is their validation from different perspectives proper understanding of each patient ’ s functioning and (. Study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the ICF-CSs for are. Ameliorating acute psychosis and reducing relapses this level of agreement supports the relevance of personal identified... By the experts WHO formed part of the Activities and Participation on citation counts in a range of four (...