The theoretical pattern compares well, in a broad sense, with the flow pattern determined from tracer injections in 1986 and 1987. Since the late 1950s, the USGS has maintained a long-term glacier mass-balance program at three North American glaciers. This paper examines the correspondence between the kinematic and observed ELA. Contour map of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A., from the United States Geologic Survey Dome Peak 7.5′ quadrangle. Lyman Glacier, Highline Trail, Yakima County, Washington, USA - Visualisation et partage de cartes topographiques gratuites. Near the glacier terminus, 5 to 6 m of combined snowmelt and ice-melt was measured during the summer. : I 19.16:715-B 1. 2010). Glacier crowned Mount Daniels lies on the Cascade Crest 21km south of Stevens Pass. South Cascade Glacier is a large alpine glacier in the North Cascades of Washington, USA. Combined Ice and Water Balances of Maclure Glacier, California, South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, 1967 Hydrologic Year: GULKANA GLACIER . South Cascade Glacier. South Cascade Glacier is a large alpine glacier in the North Cascades of Washington, USA. Free topographic maps visualization and sharing. The gently sloping glacier surface has an altitude range of 1600– 2100 m over a 3 km centerline length (Figure 1). Supt.ofDocs.no. South Cascade Glacier has the longest history of mass balance measurements in North America and second longest in the world after Storglaciären in Sweden. It spans 1300 m of elevation, from 1160 to 2470 m. The glacier is in a 31.5 km 2 basin and in 2016 it had an area of 16.0 km 2 (O'Neel et al, 2019). Figure 2. The purpose of this report is to describe and summarize data collected during the 2011 water year. Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. It is bordered on the east by 8,261-foot (2,518 m) Sentinel Peak, and is about 17 mi (27 km) north of Glacier Peak in the Glacier Peak Wilderness.Meltwater from the glacier flows directly into South Cascade Lake, which feeds the South Fork Cascade River, which is a tributary of the Skagit River. The altitude at this point on the glacier is about 6200 feet. Additional measurements have been made on Lemon Creek Glacier, AK to compliment data collected by the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP; Pelto and others, 2013). TABLE 1. Results at Mount Rainier also reflect the broader shrinking trends, with the lower-elevation glaciers being particularly hard hit. This glacier has been classified as one of the ‘reference glaciers’ by the World Glacier Monitoring Service because it has received continuous long-term observations dating back to the year 1952/53. In 1968, the area was 2.66 km2 and in 1997 it was 1.98 km2. The main trunk of the glacier has a southerly aspect, and is fed by four cirques with west, south, and east aspects. Elevation Range: Approximately 1640-2300 meters. South Cascade Glacier as seen in 1928 (left) and 2006 (right) (Source: USGS). Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. La partie située au Canada est appelée Cascade Mountains par les Canadiens [1] et Canadian Cascades par les habitants des États-Unis. To our knowledge, the “kinematic” (“Hess”) method has not been empirically tested in this way. Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. The glaciers on Mount Rainier decreased in area by 21% between 1913 and 1994 (Nylen, 2004). South Cascade Glacier has been in general re-treat since the late 19th century (Miller 1968), and has lost more than one-half its volume during that time. On the east side of Mount Daniel the former Hyas Creek Glacier reached an altitude of 1675m terminating west of Peggy’s Pond. Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. Contour map of South Cascade Glacier,Washington, U.S.A., from the United States Geologic Survey Dome Peak 7.5’quadrangle. Data was first collected from this glacier in 1959. The well-studied South Cascade Glacier shrank by 22% during this time period (USGS), while the Blue Glacier in Olympic National Park saw a terminus retreat of 2% between 1957 and 1997 (Conway et al., 1999). At the same time that South Cascade Glacier was gaining mass in the early 1970s, Wolverine Glacier was losing mass. South Cascade Glacier lost mass at an almost constant rate during the late 1950s to the late 1960s, then gained mass until 1976, and has been losing mass at a fairly constant and rapid rate since 1977. Meltwater from the glacier flows directly into South Cascade La The average thickness of South Cascade Glacier was found to be 83 meters in 1965, based on flow velocity and balance measurements. South Cascade Sperry Wolverine. Coordinates: 47.82698 -123.32662 47.82708 -123.32652 - Minimum elevation: 1,080 m - Maximum elevation: 2,168 m - Average elevation: 1,643 m Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. South Cascade Glacier area change, 1970 - 2015. Rugged topography surrounds the glacier, with relief exceeding 1500 m and peaks reaching 2400 m elevation. Landing on the glacier when the weather was unsuitable for flying was another matter. South Cascade Glacier has the longest history of mass balance measurements in North America and second longest in the world, after Storglaciären in Sweden. Prior to 1980, it had a long history of stability, with a length of 66 kilometers (41 miles), and small, short-lived advances or retreats. Change in glacier volume, ΔV, derived from mass balance measurements on 37 glaciers in five regions in the Northern Hemisphere in recent decades, and a global average. Another feature of the PTAAGMB model is the capability to estimate glacier thickness from ice flow velocity and mass balance measurements. Air temperature at 1,848 meters altitude, South Cascade Glacier Basin, 1997 water year..... 22 4. (Ice and water balances at selected glaciers in the United States) (Geological Survey Professional Paper 715-B) Bibliography: p. Air temperature at 1,631 meters altitude, South Cascade Glacier Basin, 1998 water year..... 26 4. Above 2,100-m altitude, the snowpack accumulated intermittently throughout the summer and a summer surface formed in July during short periods of melting. South Cascade Glacier, Ptarmigan Traverse, Chelan County, Washington, USA ( 48.35494 -121.05693 ) Several soil profiles were completed on this moraine. Snow density at South Cascade Glacier, April 15, 1992..... 31 8. Mark Meier initially selected South Cascade for long-term study in 1958 after reviewing a number of other candidate glaciers. 6. Graphs showing air temperature near South Cascade Glacier during the 2001 water year..... 21 Figure 11. South Cascade Glacier (lat 48°22' N., long 121°03' W., fig. Snowmelt equaled accumulation at 1,740-m altitude. al, 2010) (figure 1). 2) and numerous unnamed permanent snow or ice patches (Nylen 2002). Accordingtothe map, theglacier was field-checkedin1965. Geografiska Annaler Series A Physical Geography 81 (4), 653 – 658. doi: 10.1111/1468-0459.00093. Our Research: Our group studies mass change at five glaciers (Gulkana, Lemon Creek, South Cascade, Sperry, Wolverine) in North America using field and remote sensing techniques.To do so, we measure snow accumulation and snow and ice melt at specific locations on the glaciers, then extrapolate those point observations across the entire glacier surface. Ice ablation averaged about 44 mm of water per day during the melt season. It is not known, however, how representative South Cascade Glacier is of NOCA glaciers in general because of the influence of non-climatic factors such as geographic position, aspect and elevation. South Cascade Glacier is a large alpine glacier in the North Cascades of Washington, USA. Files are described in detail within the release. Fig. In glacier: Mass balance of mountain glaciers …the temperate, maritime glaciers is South Cascade Glacier, in western Washington.Its activity index is high, normally about 17 millimetres per metre (0.2 inch per foot); the yearly snow accumulation averages about 3.1 metres of water-equivalent; and the equilibrium line is at the relatively low altitude of 1,900 metres. Snow depths at South Cascade Glacier, May 9, 1997 ..... 23 5. Direct field measurements are combined with weather data and imagery analyses to estimate the seasonal and annual mass balance at each glacier in both a conventional and reference surface format (Cogley and others, 2011). This valley glacier occupies roughly … Since the late 1950s, the USGS has maintained a long-term glacier mass-balance program at three North American glaciers. Additional measurements have been made on Lemon Creek Glacier, AK to complement data collected by the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP; Pelto and others, 2013). South Cascade Glacier, located just outside NOCA, has been monitored by the U.S.G.S.-Water Resources Division for over 30 years. Krimmel, RM (1999) Analysis of difference between direct and Geodetic mass balance measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington. By looking at this photo it's clear to see how quickly the glaciers are retreating in the modern world. South Cascade Glacier, Ptarmigan Traverse, Chelan County, Washington, USA (48.35494 -121.05693), Camano Island, Camano, Island County, Washington, 98282, USA (48.16255 -122.49503), Coordinates: 48.05482 -122.53873 48.27026 -122.35619 - Minimum elevation: -1 m - Maximum elevation: 215 m - Average elevation: 38 m, Maple Valley, King County, Washington, 98038, USA (47.36642 -122.04371), Coordinates: 47.34346 -122.06491 47.39808 -122.01604 - Minimum elevation: 104 m - Maximum elevation: 265 m - Average elevation: 167 m, Columbia County, Washington, USA (46.29477 -117.91747), Coordinates: 45.99889 -118.24264 46.62477 -117.60311 - Minimum elevation: 150 m - Maximum elevation: 1,935 m - Average elevation: 711 m, Entiat Glacier, Mount Maude Summit Approach, Chelan County, Washington, USA (48.14114 -120.79603), Coordinates: 48.13720 -120.80665 48.14512 -120.78122 - Minimum elevation: 1,230 m - Maximum elevation: 2,790 m - Average elevation: 1,991 m, Bellevue, King County, Washington, USA (47.61442 -122.19234), Coordinates: 47.53501 -122.22281 47.66079 -122.08722 - Minimum elevation: 0 m - Maximum elevation: 898 m - Average elevation: 99 m, Sulphide Glacier, Sulfide Glacier Route, Whatcom County, Washington, USA (48.81236 -121.60459), Coordinates: 48.79483 -121.62059 48.83015 -121.59059 - Minimum elevation: 441 m - Maximum elevation: 2,734 m - Average elevation: 1,539 m, Montesano, Grays Harbor County, Washington, USA (46.98121 -123.60266), Coordinates: 46.96101 -123.63940 47.04560 -123.54218 - Minimum elevation: -1 m - Maximum elevation: 231 m - Average elevation: 66 m, Fairchild Glacier, Mount Carrie Way Trail, Clallam County, Washington, USA (47.90676 -123.62908), Coordinates: 47.90671 -123.62913 47.90681 -123.62903 - Minimum elevation: 631 m - Maximum elevation: 2,101 m - Average elevation: 1,405 m, Cameron Glaciers, Main Fork Dosewallips River Trail, Jefferson County, Washington, USA (47.82703 -123.32657), Coordinates: 47.82698 -123.32662 47.82708 -123.32652 - Minimum elevation: 1,080 m - Maximum elevation: 2,168 m - Average elevation: 1,643 m, Wilson Glacier, Camp Muir Route, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.82294 -121.74939), Coordinates: 46.81257 -121.76177 46.83285 -121.74362 - Minimum elevation: 1,370 m - Maximum elevation: 4,384 m - Average elevation: 2,584 m, Mount Terror, Whatcom County, Washington, USA (48.77429 -121.29957), Coordinates: 48.77424 -121.29962 48.77434 -121.29952 - Minimum elevation: 616 m - Maximum elevation: 2,393 m - Average elevation: 1,532 m, Kautz Glacier, Van Trump Trail, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.82511 -121.77379), Coordinates: 46.80886 -121.78501 46.84133 -121.76502 - Minimum elevation: 1,411 m - Maximum elevation: 4,384 m - Average elevation: 2,604 m, Winthrop Glacier, Glacier Basin Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.88780 -121.73497), Coordinates: 46.85544 -121.76124 46.92159 -121.72429 - Minimum elevation: 1,107 m - Maximum elevation: 4,384 m - Average elevation: 2,261 m, So-Bahli-Alhi Glacier, Neiderprum Trail, White Horse, Snohomish County, Washington, USA (48.21369 -121.68068), Coordinates: 48.21114 -121.68683 48.21625 -121.67407 - Minimum elevation: 176 m - Maximum elevation: 2,038 m - Average elevation: 1,002 m, Mount Rainier, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.85286 -121.76054), Coordinates: 46.85281 -121.76059 46.85291 -121.76049 - Minimum elevation: 2,288 m - Maximum elevation: 4,384 m - Average elevation: 3,142 m, Yawning Glacier, Ptarmigan Traverse, Chelan County, Washington, USA (48.44985 -121.03928), Coordinates: 48.44980 -121.03933 48.44990 -121.03923 - Minimum elevation: 864 m - Maximum elevation: 2,367 m - Average elevation: 1,599 m, Mount Shuksan, Whatcom County, Washington, USA (48.83112 -121.60291), Coordinates: 48.83107 -121.60296 48.83117 -121.60286 - Minimum elevation: 830 m - Maximum elevation: 2,734 m - Average elevation: 1,588 m, Terror Glacier, Whatcom County, Washington, USA (48.76543 -121.29240), Coordinates: 48.76011 -121.29686 48.77082 -121.28138 - Minimum elevation: 538 m - Maximum elevation: 2,393 m - Average elevation: 1,526 m, Lyall Glacier, Maple Pass Trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA (48.48836 -120.74534), Coordinates: 48.48760 -120.74802 48.48936 -120.74311 - Minimum elevation: 953 m - Maximum elevation: 2,414 m - Average elevation: 1,612 m, Suiattle Glacier, Foam Creek Trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA (48.08528 -121.10522), Coordinates: 48.06485 -121.11181 48.10559 -121.07764 - Minimum elevation: 1,319 m - Maximum elevation: 3,199 m - Average elevation: 2,125 m, Sherpa Glacier, Horseshoe Lake Trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA (47.47533 -120.88989), Coordinates: 47.47227 -120.89263 47.47854 -120.88416 - Minimum elevation: 1,269 m - Maximum elevation: 2,829 m - Average elevation: 1,821 m, Fryingpan Glacier, Wonderland Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.85230 -121.68332), Coordinates: 46.84266 -121.70773 46.86200 -121.66241 - Minimum elevation: 1,519 m - Maximum elevation: 3,305 m - Average elevation: 2,257 m, Enumclaw, King County, Washington, 98022, USA (47.20478 -121.99164), Coordinates: 47.16299 -122.02685 47.24621 -121.94028 - Minimum elevation: 159 m - Maximum elevation: 937 m - Average elevation: 279 m, Quien Sabe Glacier, Sahale Arm Trail, Skagit County, Washington, USA (48.49445 -121.04298), Coordinates: 48.48778 -121.04926 48.50107 -121.03699 - Minimum elevation: 857 m - Maximum elevation: 2,748 m - Average elevation: 1,840 m, Lava Dome, Skamania County, Washington, USA (46.19636 -122.18836), Coordinates: 46.19631 -122.18841 46.19641 -122.18831 - Minimum elevation: 1,152 m - Maximum elevation: 2,525 m - Average elevation: 1,657 m, Sahale Glacier, Sahale Arm Trail, Skagit County, Washington, USA (48.48740 -121.04111), Coordinates: 48.48560 -121.04529 48.48930 -121.03626 - Minimum elevation: 885 m - Maximum elevation: 2,748 m - Average elevation: 1,826 m, Stuart Glacier, Horseshoe Lake Trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA (47.47910 -120.90128), Coordinates: 47.47716 -120.90596 47.48112 -120.89476 - Minimum elevation: 1,301 m - Maximum elevation: 2,829 m - Average elevation: 1,832 m, Company Glacier, Cloudy Pass Trail #1256, Holden Village, Chelan County, Washington, USA (48.24624 -120.86427), Coordinates: 48.24619 -120.86432 48.24629 -120.86422 - Minimum elevation: 1,201 m - Maximum elevation: 2,834 m - Average elevation: 1,905 m, Spire Glacier, Ptarmigan Traverse, Chelan County, Washington, USA (48.32122 -121.08133), Coordinates: 48.31695 -121.09216 48.32544 -121.07009 - Minimum elevation: 926 m - Maximum elevation: 2,550 m - Average elevation: 1,719 m, Jeffers Glacier, Humes Glacier Route, Jefferson County, Washington, USA (47.77859 -123.67429), Coordinates: 47.77394 -123.68184 47.78314 -123.66516 - Minimum elevation: 472 m - Maximum elevation: 2,381 m - Average elevation: 1,464 m, Puyallup Glacier, Wonderland Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.84773 -121.81941), Coordinates: 46.83897 -121.85024 46.85650 -121.79577 - Minimum elevation: 1,188 m - Maximum elevation: 4,234 m - Average elevation: 2,341 m, Olympic Mountains, Jefferson County, Washington, 98305, USA (47.74760 -123.52537), Coordinates: 47.28668 -124.35425 48.14227 -122.90680 - Minimum elevation: 0 m - Maximum elevation: 2,328 m - Average elevation: 504 m, No Name Glacier, Hadley Peak Route, Whatcom County, Washington, USA (48.80939 -121.81776), Coordinates: 48.80437 -121.83154 48.81428 -121.81320 - Minimum elevation: 1,012 m - Maximum elevation: 3,189 m - Average elevation: 1,865 m, Honeycomb Glacier, Snohomish County, Washington, USA (48.07074 -121.07314), Coordinates: 48.06190 -121.09106 48.07992 -121.04421 - Minimum elevation: 1,228 m - Maximum elevation: 2,756 m - Average elevation: 1,940 m, Carrie Glacier, Bailey Range Way Trail, Jefferson County, Washington, USA (47.89148 -123.63463), Coordinates: 47.89143 -123.63468 47.89153 -123.63458 - Minimum elevation: 563 m - Maximum elevation: 2,101 m - Average elevation: 1,399 m, Tahoma Glacier, Wonderland Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.83828 -121.81108), Coordinates: 46.82273 -121.83772 46.85390 -121.77104 - Minimum elevation: 1,425 m - Maximum elevation: 4,384 m - Average elevation: 2,606 m, Nisqually Glacier, Camp Muir Route, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.82564 -121.74256), Coordinates: 46.80118 -121.76167 46.85030 -121.73570 - Minimum elevation: 1,469 m - Maximum elevation: 4,384 m - Average elevation: 2,668 m, Snow Creek Glacier, Little Annapurna summit trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA (47.47155 -120.81577), Coordinates: 47.46953 -120.81784 47.47347 -120.81297 - Minimum elevation: 1,072 m - Maximum elevation: 2,665 m - Average elevation: 1,890 m, Dusty Glacier, Pacific Crest Trail, Snohomish County, Washington, USA (48.12609 -121.09943), Coordinates: 48.11865 -121.11272 48.13349 -121.08732 - Minimum elevation: 1,364 m - Maximum elevation: 3,199 m - Average elevation: 2,099 m, Whitman Glacier, Wonderland Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.83996 -121.69163), Coordinates: 46.82872 -121.70850 46.85115 -121.67629 - Minimum elevation: 1,412 m - Maximum elevation: 3,597 m - Average elevation: 2,318 m, Glacier Peak, Snohomish County, Washington, USA (48.11185 -121.11422), Coordinates: 48.11180 -121.11427 48.11190 -121.11417 - Minimum elevation: 1,293 m - Maximum elevation: 3,199 m - Average elevation: 2,134 m, Mount Dana, Jefferson County, Washington, USA (47.79120 -123.48546), Coordinates: 47.79115 -123.48551 47.79125 -123.48541 - Minimum elevation: 503 m - Maximum elevation: 1,882 m - Average elevation: 1,086 m, Success Glacier, Van Trump Trail, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.82751 -121.78066), Coordinates: 46.82048 -121.78492 46.83459 -121.77455 - Minimum elevation: 1,469 m - Maximum elevation: 4,384 m - Average elevation: 2,645 m, Cowlitz Glacier, Camp Muir Route, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.82570 -121.70909), Coordinates: 46.81074 -121.74143 46.84252 -121.68911 - Minimum elevation: 1,498 m - Maximum elevation: 4,384 m - Average elevation: 2,464 m, Sholes Glacier, Park Glacier Route, Whatcom County, Washington, USA (48.81174 -121.76817), Coordinates: 48.80225 -121.78831 48.82126 -121.75583 - Minimum elevation: 980 m - Maximum elevation: 3,041 m - Average elevation: 1,668 m, Banded Glacier, Fisher Creek Trail, Skagit County, Washington, USA (48.54457 -120.95233), Coordinates: 48.54452 -120.95238 48.54462 -120.95228 - Minimum elevation: 1,098 m - Maximum elevation: 2,746 m - Average elevation: 1,785 m, Cascade Range, Skamania County, Washington, USA (44.80295 -122.09603), Coordinates: 40.25228 -123.33252 49.65163 -119.56421 - Minimum elevation: 0 m - Maximum elevation: 4,187 m - Average elevation: 841 m, Paradise Glacier, Camp Muir Route, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.81994 -121.71742), Coordinates: 46.80531 -121.72767 46.83006 -121.70836 - Minimum elevation: 1,334 m - Maximum elevation: 4,306 m - Average elevation: 2,280 m, Lillian Glacier, Cameron Pass Trail, Jefferson County, Washington, USA (47.85203 -123.37712), Coordinates: 47.85198 -123.37717 47.85208 -123.37707 - Minimum elevation: 942 m - Maximum elevation: 2,159 m - Average elevation: 1,607 m, Emmons Glacier, Glacier Basin Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA (46.86748 -121.71519), Coordinates: 46.84861 -121.75389 46.88796 -121.67228 - Minimum elevation: 1,469 m - Maximum elevation: 4,363 m - Average elevation: 2,537 m, South Cascade Glacier, Ptarmigan Traverse, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Camano Island, Camano, Island County, Washington, 98282, USA, Maple Valley, King County, Washington, 98038, USA, Entiat Glacier, Mount Maude Summit Approach, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Sulphide Glacier, Sulfide Glacier Route, Whatcom County, Washington, USA, Montesano, Grays Harbor County, Washington, USA, Fairchild Glacier, Mount Carrie Way Trail, Clallam County, Washington, USA, Cameron Glaciers, Main Fork Dosewallips River Trail, Jefferson County, Washington, USA, Wilson Glacier, Camp Muir Route, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Mount Terror, Whatcom County, Washington, USA, Kautz Glacier, Van Trump Trail, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Winthrop Glacier, Glacier Basin Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA, So-Bahli-Alhi Glacier, Neiderprum Trail, White Horse, Snohomish County, Washington, USA, Mount Rainier, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Yawning Glacier, Ptarmigan Traverse, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Mount Shuksan, Whatcom County, Washington, USA, Terror Glacier, Whatcom County, Washington, USA, Lyall Glacier, Maple Pass Trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Suiattle Glacier, Foam Creek Trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Sherpa Glacier, Horseshoe Lake Trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Fryingpan Glacier, Wonderland Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Enumclaw, King County, Washington, 98022, USA, Quien Sabe Glacier, Sahale Arm Trail, Skagit County, Washington, USA, Lava Dome, Skamania County, Washington, USA, Sahale Glacier, Sahale Arm Trail, Skagit County, Washington, USA, Stuart Glacier, Horseshoe Lake Trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Company Glacier, Cloudy Pass Trail #1256, Holden Village, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Spire Glacier, Ptarmigan Traverse, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Jeffers Glacier, Humes Glacier Route, Jefferson County, Washington, USA, Puyallup Glacier, Wonderland Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Olympic Mountains, Jefferson County, Washington, 98305, USA, No Name Glacier, Hadley Peak Route, Whatcom County, Washington, USA, Honeycomb Glacier, Snohomish County, Washington, USA, Carrie Glacier, Bailey Range Way Trail, Jefferson County, Washington, USA, Tahoma Glacier, Wonderland Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Nisqually Glacier, Camp Muir Route, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Snow Creek Glacier, Little Annapurna summit trail, Chelan County, Washington, USA, Dusty Glacier, Pacific Crest Trail, Snohomish County, Washington, USA, Whitman Glacier, Wonderland Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Glacier Peak, Snohomish County, Washington, USA, Mount Dana, Jefferson County, Washington, USA, Success Glacier, Van Trump Trail, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Cowlitz Glacier, Camp Muir Route, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Sholes Glacier, Park Glacier Route, Whatcom County, Washington, USA, Banded Glacier, Fisher Creek Trail, Skagit County, Washington, USA, Cascade Range, Skamania County, Washington, USA, Paradise Glacier, Camp Muir Route, Paradise, Pierce County, Washington, USA, Lillian Glacier, Cameron Pass Trail, Jefferson County, Washington, USA, Emmons Glacier, Glacier Basin Trail, Pierce County, Washington, USA. Observations by the USGS at South Cascade Glacier indicate that since the mid-1950s, South Cascade Glacier’s cumulative mass balance was -25m, mean annual balance from 1956-1975 averaged -0.15 m/a , and from 1976-2012 averaged -0.75 m/a. South Cascade Glacier (Fig. For both the June and August measurements we then calculate snow water equivalent. South Cascade Glacier for four different years between 1964 and 1992, during which the glacier was thinning and receding. Instrumentation at South Cascade Glacier during the 1965 hydrologic year_____ _ _____ A13 2. Table1.Theglaciersusedinthisstudy Glacier Country Latitude Area in1995 Yearsof ELArecords km2 Peyto Canada 51.40‡ N 13.35 25 White Canada 79.27‡ N 38.9 19 It has an altitude range 1630^ 2130mandanareaof2.0km2.Mostprecipitationonthegla-cier falls as snow, withº3m accumulating each winter at the head of the glacier. 3. Since the late 1950s, the USGS has maintained a long-term glacier mass-balance program at three North American glaciers. High-altitude measurements of meteorological data have been collected since the [...]. This fits well the observations of density of South Cascade Glacier, which for early June of 1993 –1998 yielded a density range of 0.51–0.55 g/cm 3 (Krimmel, 1998). Click on title to download individual files attached to this item. Since the late 1950s, the USGS has maintained a long-term glacier mass-balance program at three North American glaciers. at South Cascade Glacier by US Geological Survey (USGS), and globally. South Cascade Lake 2.2 3.0 3.7. South Cascade Glacier in Washington experiences some of the highest precipitation levels in the lower 48 states of the USA, exceeding 4500mm per annum in some places. It is bordered on the east by 8,261-foot (2,518 m) Sentinel Peak, and is about 17 mi (27 km) north of Glacier Peak in the Glacier Peak Wilderness. Glaciers are a defining feature of MORA; as of 1994 there were 27 major glaciers on Mount Rainier with a combined area of 90 km. Altitude: 3 285 m, Mont Baker ... Il s'agit de montagnes principalement non volcaniques mais qui incluent les stratovolcans du mont Baker et du pic Glacier, qui font partie de l'arc volcanique des Cascades (en anglais : Cascade Volcanic Arc). South Cascade Glacier is located at 48.355278, -121.0575 within the Cascade Range in Washington State. Other Study Locations: Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska ... are combined with weather data and imagery analyses to calculate the seasonal and annual mass balance of each glacier. DESCRIPTION. DESCRIPTION. Additional measurements have been made on Lemon Creek Glacier, AK to compliment data collected by the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP; Pelto and others, 2013). (2020-10-16 09:48), USGS Alaska Science Center - Data Release Backups, USGS Benchmark Glacier Mass Balance and Project Data, USGS Benchmark Glacier Mass Balance and Project Data Collection, High Altitude Weather Station Data at USGS Benchmark Glaciers, High Altitude Weather Station Data at USGS Benchmark Glaciers (V1.0). ... and the input point measurements and elevation data used for these calculations. It is bordered on the east by 8,261-foot (2,518 m) Sentinel Peak, and is about 17 mi (27 km) north of Glacier Peak in the Glacier Peak Wilderness.Meltwater from the glacier flows directly into South Cascade Lake, which feeds the South Fork Cascade River, which is a tributary of the Skagit River. The Three Sisters are closely spaced volcanic peaks in the U.S. state of Oregon.They are part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc, a segment of the Cascade Range in western North America extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California.Each more than 10,000 feet (3,000 m) in elevation, they are the third-, fourth- and fifth-highest peaks in Oregon. Landing on the glacier when the weather was unsuitable for flying was another matter. Columbia Glacier is a large (1,100 square kilometers), multi-branched calving glacier in south central Alaska that flows mostly south out of the Chugach Mountains to its tidewater termination in Prince William Sound. It ranges in elevation from 1630 to 2100 m a.s.I., and its equilibrium-line elevation is at approximately 1870 m a.s.l. The heavy snow accumulation west of the Cascade divide has resulted in a few glaciers being situated below the regional timberline. The altitude at this point on the glacier is about 6200 feet. glaciers is needed. 1). Correspondingly, the balance years 2004 and 2005 maximum winter snow balances of South Cascade Glacier, 2.08 and 1.97 meters water equivalent, respectively, were smaller than the average of such balances since 1959. Maclure Glacier (lat 37O45' N., 3,650-m (metres) mean equilibrium line altitude) had an above normal winter balance of 3.46 m and a positive annual balance of 1.05 m (metres of water equivalent). Glacier Thickness Calculation. Graph showing net balance as a function of altitude at South Cascade Glacier, 2000..... 20 Figure 10. Ang South Cascade Glacier nahimutang sa kondado sa Skagit County ug estado sa Washington, sa amihanan-kasadpang bahin sa nasod, 3,600 km sa kasadpan sa ulohang dakbayan Washington, D.C. 1,871 metros ibabaw sa dagat kahaboga ang nahimutangan sa South Cascade Glacier.. Ang yuta palibot sa South Cascade Glacier kay kasagaran … The terminal moraine is covered by MA. 3) is located in the North Cascades of Washington. Snow density at 1,618 meters altitude in South Cascade Glacier Basin, Seasonal mass balance has been monitored at this ablation stake site since 1957. The South Cascade Glacier annual balance in 1966 (-0.94 m) was considerably more negative mainly owing to the deficient winter snowpack (the late-winter balance was only 2.52 m) and the warm dry summer. €A Kenmore Air Harbor Beaver after landing on South Cascade Glacier and poised to take off down glacier. The 2004 glacier summer … Mark Meier initially selected South Cascade for long-term study in 1958 after reviewing a number of other candidate glaciers. (a) All glaciers are in Queen Elizabeth Islands (Arctic Canada). South Cascade Glacier altitude grid, October 6, 1992..... 30 7. Elevation: 3,286 m (10,781 ft) Dimensions; Length: 434.5 km (270.0 mi) North-South: Width: 241 km (150 mi) East-West: Geography Additional measurements have been made on Lemon Creek Glacier, AK to compliment data collected by the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP; Pelto and others, 2013). Since mass balance measurements began in 1958, 28 years have had negative balances. Air temperature at 1,631 meters altitude, South Cascade Glacier Basin, 1995 water year..... 27 4. Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. Instrumentation at South Cascade Glacier during the 1966 hydrologic year_ _____ 4. Additional measurements have been made on Lemon Creek Glacier, AK to compliment data collected by the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP; Pelto and others, 2013). Direct field measurements are combined with weather data and imagery analyses to estimate the seasonal and annual mass balance at each glacier in both a conventional and reference surface format (Cogley and others, 2011). South Cascade Glacier (48.36‡ N, 121.06‡ W) is a small, north-facing, temperate glacier on the crest of the North Cascade Range of northwesternWashington, 250km from the Pacific Ocean (Fig. Location: Latitude: 48°21'23.00"N, Longitude: 121°3'26.65"W. Area: 2015 = 1.8 km 2. In recent times South Cascade Glacier shows evidence of advances in 2700-2900 B.C., the 16th century, and the middle and late 19th century (Meier, 1964). Snow depths at South Cascade Glacier, April 15-16, 1992 ..... 32 9. Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. Additional measurements have been made on Lemon Creek Glacier, AK to compliment data collected by the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP; Pelto and others, 2013). Above Air temperature at 1,615 meters altitude, South Cascade Glacier Basin: a. 3. South Cascade Glacier, which has a mean altitude of 1,875 m, is the lowest large glacier in the North Cascades. Snow, ice, and water balances, South Cascade Glacier, 1965 hydrologic and balance years_ 3. Meltwater from the glacier flows into South Cascade Lake, the headwaters of the South Fork of the Cascade River. We turned back to Kenmore many times when This glacier is 0.5 km long and covers an area of 0.2 km 2; the mean ELA (equilibrium line altitude) is 3,650 m. Runoff from the 0.97 km 2 basin flows into the Tuolumne River, which flows west into the San Joaquin Valley of California. The area of the glacier is about 69 . 3. Air temperature at 1,848 meters altitude, South Cascade Glacier Basin, South Cascade Glacier in Washington documented from 1928 to 2003 showing the recent rapid glacier retreating. Gulkana Glacier (lat 63°15' N., long 145°28' W., fig 7) is a branched valley glacier on the south flank of the Alaska Range. 03' o 480 yo 22' EXPLANATION Area of snow cover 3.6 Stake Number is late winter snow balance, in metres Probing point Line of equal winter snow balance Interval I metre. The North Cascade Range in the vicinity of South Cascade Glacier accumulated smaller than normal winter snowpacks during water years 2004 and 2005. Combined ice and water balances of Maclure Glacier, California, South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, 1967 hydrologic year. High Altitude Weather Station Data at USGS Benchmark Glaciers ... Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. For glaciers such as South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Gulkana Glacier, Alaska, the balance-altitude function reaches a maximum at an altitude lower than the head of the glacier, then decreases slightly at higher altitudes (Meier and others, 197 I), This decrease can be explained, at least partiall y, by accumulation processes. Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. Suba sa yelo ang South Cascade Glacier sa Tinipong Bansa. The results confirm stake measurements at South Cascade Glacier in the North Cascades, showing significant loss over the past 60 years. The canyon was formed by glaciers which retreated at the end of the last glacial maximum approximately 15,000 years ago. 1. According to the map, the glacier was field-checked in1965. Steady state glacier = ~65% accum area What are the consequences of a rise or fall of the ELA? Trees grow on slopes above the accumulation area of this glacier. The glacier is in a north-northwest facing valley with an altitude range of 1600–2100 meters (Bidlake et al. At the same time that South Cascade Glacier was gaining mass in the early 1970s, Wolverine Glacier … Measurements began on South Cascade Glacier, WA in 1958, expanding to Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers, AK in 1966, and later Sperry Glacier, MT in 2005. 2 (35 mi. South Cascade Glacier is a north-northwest facing valley glacier located along the crest of the North Cascades Range of northwestern Washington State (Meier and Tangborn, 1965; Bidlake et. Differences between the patterns may result from the routing of surface meltwater in crevasses prior to entering the body of the glacier. South Cascade Glacier (lat 48'22' N., 1,900-m mean equilibrium line altitude) had a winter balance of 3.28 m, slightly above average. South Cascade Glacier is a temperate mountain glacier located in the Cascade Mountains, Washington. I) is a small valley glacier located in the Cascade Mountains in the north-western corner of the U.S.A. A researcher collecting a snow core sample from South Cascade Glacier (Source: USGS). Air temperature at 1,848 meters altitude, South Cascade Glacier Basin, Direct field measurements are combined with weather data and imagery … €A Kenmore Air Harbor Beaver after landing on South Cascade Glacier and poised to take off down glacier. The Cascade The A1 of South Cascade Glacier, 17 mm/m, is relatively high; ELA, 1,900 m, is moderately low; the winter balance, 3.1 m, is high; and the annual exchange, 6.6 m, is also high. equilibrium-line altitude 1,200 m, activity index 9 mm/m, winter balance 2.5 m, and annual exchange 5.5 m; South Cascade Glacier ... 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