Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. They give an overview of each free-response question and of how students performed on the question, including typical … Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. A mere boost to Europe's fortunes was not enough to turn Europe into the core of the world economy. AP Human Geography Unit 3 FRQs 1. Track your scores, create tests, and take your learning to the next level! Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy. 2001. This was in part triggered by the Black Plague. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Numerous colonies still exist today -- for example, the US controls places such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and some native activists argue that Hawaii is more colony than state. Between 1492 and 1900, over 10 million men and women were taken from Africa to the Americas (Voyages 2009). (Note that contrary to popular myth, the Chinese did not use gunpowder solely for fireworks -- indeed, one would have to be rather dense to invent something that makes a dramatic explosion, and not figure out that you could use it to kill someone!) 6. The attempt by one country to impose political control over another country is called __________. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. World Ecological Degradation: Accumulation, Urbanization, and Deforestation 3000 B.C.-A.D. 2000. These raw materials fed the manufacturers of Europe, easing resource constraints that had grown as Europe's economy expanded. London: Routledge. Much of the trade within Asia was carried on by Arab and Chinese ships, and caravans through Central Asia. This was most notable during the Cold War between the US and USSR. A revolution in environmental justice and sustainable development: the political ecology of Nicaragua. A disease that is too slow to infect new victims will disappear, as everyone who has it dies or gets better without passing it on to new victims. Colonialism is when a more powerful country attempts to assert its power and influence over a weaker country. Geographical Review 82 (2): 143-153. 2009. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. In Africa, it was common for the best and most fertile lands to be seized by British colonists, forcing native Africans to crowd into poorer lands (Rocheleau 1995). During the last few decades of the nineteenth century, and the early twentieth century, the European imperial powers carved the continent of Africa among themselves. Start studying AP Human Geography Unit 4 (Political Human Geography- Imperialism | Colonialism | Decolonization) Review. Today there is fear among some political players that China's rapid economic growth is giving them the means to compete with the US, Japan, and Europe in manipulating poorer countries (Brautigam 2010). 2005. Finally, diseases have a much more devastating impact when they come to a new population for the first time. Long-distance trade fell off as people focused on maintaining their own local livelihoods. mgettenberg. •Example: people may choose to move because of a major problem that almost forces them to move •Example: people may feel they will eventually be forced to move, so they voluntarily move . Slave traders naturally preferred able-bodied young men and women, who were the productive backbone of pre-slave-trade African economies. We're familiar with short-term economic ups and downs, which last perhaps a few years at a time. The Indian Ocean in Eurasian and African world-systems before the Sixteenth Century. Over time, these trans-regional economic linkages have spread farther and grown stronger, leading eventually to our modern globe-spanning economy. Abu-Lughod, Janet L. 1989. 2007. Initial attempts to use Native American labor were disappointing, as so many of them had died of diseases. By the end of the colonial era, the world economy had been remade to place Europe and the neo-Europes in a dominant position. 1997. Australia and Oceania’s physical geography, environment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately. 3. Search » All » Geography » AP Human Geography ... Japan is in example but their are few states like it. Your Infringement Notice may be forwarded to the party that made the content available or to third parties such Add To Calendar; Details ; About the Units. Colonialism involves a powerful nation sending settlers to permanently live in another land under the originating nation's control. Pomeranz, K. 2000. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (58) Antecedent Boundary. Daily Nation. A series of unprecedented famines struck India and other colonies in the late 1800s, even as these colonies were exporting food to Britain. Colonialism: Colonialism refers to the act of a group of people from one nation going to other parts of the world and forming settlements. It was not uncommon for tribes to lose 90% or more of their members. Colonialism is a process by which a country takes over new land, and reorganizes that land's economy to benefit the colonizing power, rather than to benefit the residents of the colony. European trade with Asia was further hampered by a lack of easy trade routes to the East. Your name, address, telephone number and email address; and the "Pax Britannica" established in Africa (Watts 1986). University of Washington-Seattle Campus... University of South Florida-Main Campus, Current Undergrad, International Studies. And if the white race is not biologically distinct from other races, then we cant explain the economic growth of Europe on the basis of biological characteristics. There are many types of cultural diffusion, and in this guide we will go over the types and provide examples. The University of Texas at Dallas, Bachelor in Arts, International Political Economy. In his essay "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," sociologist Max Weber argued that the Protestant doctrine of predestination -- which held that God had already decided who would go to Heaven and who would go to Hell, and there was nothing an individual could do about it -- caused people to work hard and invest their savings in the economy rather than wasting them on Earthly pleasures. The full slideshow can be purchased at http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Mr-Eil… your copyright is not authorized by law, or by the copyright owner or such owner’s agent; (b) that all of the AP Human Geography: Political Geography Vocabulary. For example, English farming systems involving wheat, peas, and cattle could be recreated in the northeastern US with little effort. At the time of colonization, Europe was much more densely populated than the Americas. Describe the concept of a superimposed boundary. But European settlement was particularly heavy in areas that have come to be known as neo-Europes -- Canada, the US, Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay in the Americas, as well as South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Common definition: A language that facilitates communication or trade between people who speak different native languages. Frank, Andre Gunder. Colonialism works to funnel wealth back to the colonizer while inhibiting the development of the colony. Marks the beginning of the modern state system Treaty between princes of the states making up the Holy Roman Empire Ended destructive religious war –The Thirty Year War Recognized the rights of rulers within defined Farmers living in close proximity to their livestock gave ample time for the bacteria and viruses to jump the species barrier. None of these are the sort of herd animals that commonly pass diseases to humans (Diamond 1997). Comfort, Susan. Kobayashi, Audrey. Rocheleau, D. 1995. In many cases, that was British consumers rather than Indian ones. (Clear inference of communication barriers being overcome.) Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Blaut, J. M. 1989. Europe was attracted by the riches of Asia, but had few products that it could trade for Asian goods. The plague originated with rats from central Asia. In the 1300s, this world system experienced a decline (Abu-Lughod 1989). In one sense, colonization reduced conflict among colonized populations, as the colonizer's military power imposed peace, e.g. But why those countries instead of others? Examples of Empires. Numerous colonies still exist today -- for example, the US controls places such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and some native activists argue that Hawaii is more colony than state. The unreliability of India's climate had led native princes to develop systems to accumulate and store food during good years, and redistribute that food in bad ones. 2001. Berkeley: University of California Press. Native Americans were often skilled fighters, and they quickly took up European weaponry, but they remained largely dependent on trade with European allies to keep up in the arms race. Europe's first priority in establishing American colonies was to produce things that they could sell to China and India. Economic historians calculate that the emergence of Europe as the core of the world economy occurred relatively late in history -- possibly as late as 1850. C. Give two examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale. The Treaty of Tordesillas primarily concerns the division of __________ between two colonial powers. Wallerstein's World System Theory. Over time, only the genes conferring high resistance to the disease will be left. It spread quickly along trade routes throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, devastating populations and thereby disrupting economies. Second, the trans-Atlantic slave trade was highly racialized. If there was nothing but ocean between Europe and China, the sailing ships available in Europe at the time could not make the voyage. This was done uncooperatively though the so-called “Scramble for Africa” and cooperatively with the Berlin Conference in 1884-1885. Mahan's Sea Power Theory . Each downswing is an opportunity for the system to be reorganized as different powers seize the advantage. Many countries bear crushing debt burdens which are owed to ex-colonizer countries, forcing them to continue producing for the world market and making them vulnerable to demands from international creditors. Cultural Geography Historic Cultures Indigenous cultures shaped, and were shaped by, the geography of Australia and Oceania. While they were set up as colonies, the wholesale transfer of the European way of life to these areas enabled them to become rivals to the European homelands, and even, in the case of the US, capture the status of global economic core. This form of economic control over a former colony is known as “Neo-colonialism.”. But the trans-Atlantic slave trade differed in several crucial ways. AP Human Geography: Exam Prep Final Free Practice Test Instructions Choose your answer to the question and click 'Continue' to see how you did. The Richter Scale of Cultural Development was from the television show Star Trek. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press. It is much easier for a disease to hit this sweet spot in a large, dense population. Soul wound: the legacy of Native American schools. Thus, millennia of living with various diseases had turned them into childhood nuisances but not terrible plagues for Europeans. Voyages 2009. For now, we can summarize by saying that some people argued that the temperate climate of Europe was invigorating to its inhabitants, whereas tropical climates in much of the rest of the world made people lazy and sensual (Frenkel 1992). Rather, the system is typically organized so that the bulk of the profits accrue to one area of the world, called the core. This distinction remains important to this day, even since independence, because it represents a cultural and linguistic distinction. New York: Guilford Press. Timber and other forest products like turpentine were also important. The distinguishing feature of the neo-Europes is the similarity of their climates to that of Europe. It depopulated significant swaths of land, which then reverted to disease-infested swamps. "The West" is a vague term roughly corresponding with the developed world or global North, excluding Asian countries such as Japan and South Korea. This college-level course introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped human understanding, use, and … STUDY. Britain and other powers extracted tax breaks and special deals as well as trade monopolies over certain regions. In China, the colonizing impact was less direct, as no European power ever directly ruled China. Colonialism also created ideological subordination. Whilst Algeria accounts for a little over one-percent of French trade (making it relatively insignificant to France), France accounts for a quarter of Algerian trade (making it extremely significant to Algeria). In the Americas, lands were cut up into haciendas run by Spanish or Portuguese masters, with poor and native people having little option but to work for the masters (even if they werent formally enslaved). Large economic systems go through boom and bust phases on a long historical time scale. Acquisition of deadly diseases from animals continues today, with recent concerns over bird flu and swine flu. Brautigam, Deborah. Placing race in environmental justice research in Latin America. Prior to that, other regions of the world, specifically China and India, could be considered the core (Frank 1998). On the political front, countries in the European/neo-European core used their greater power to interfere with the affairs of ex-colonies around the world. One of the reasons that Europe had remained in the semiperiphery of the world economy before 1492 was that there was little that Europe could produce that China and India wanted. My Geography teacher has started an experiment which involves me writing about what I have learnt in my lessons and about any geographical news that interests me. The difference was that while the Spanish were regrouping, a plague (historians think it was likely smallpox) wiped out many of Tenochtitlan's warriors. Often, the governing country uses the colony for its resources, taking what is useful without regard to the original inhabitants. In addition to the violence of the conquest itself, a variety of consequences were felt by colonized societies. The world economy has one market and a global division of labor. The course content outlined below is organized into commonly taught units of study that provide one possible sequence for the course. The Dragon's Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. And disease spread quicker than European explorers and conquerors. means of the most recent email address, if any, provided by such party to Varsity Tutors. sufficient detail to permit Varsity Tutors to find and positively identify that content; for example we require … First was the scale. Semiperipheral areas often aspire to become the core, in order to reap the rewards of long-distance trade. 2010. Territory is not clearly defined – boundaries were not set or recognized. (1500's-1700's) European colonialism in Africa (1800's-1900's) Wallerstein's World-systems theory. China's economy ran on a silver standard, and so economic growth created an enormous hunger for silver. Journal of World History 16 (4): 411-465. Colonial Riches and the Asian Trade [link]. Colonial rulers charged native people taxes that must be paid in cash -- in contrast to native rulers, who had accepted payment in grain, hides, or other products. One of the perennial questions in the social sciences is to explain "the rise of the West." Kenya: Post-election violence not spontaneous. One major commodity that China did demand from the outside world was precious metals, particularly silver (Frank 1998). At least a few Europeans settled in every colony, in order to run its affairs and direct the production of wealth for the ruler. Chase-Dunn, Christopher, and Thomas D. Hall. This is a simple matter of evolutionary biology. Mercantilism is best defined as __________. But economic historians have also identified long-lasting waves of economic growth and decline, lasting several hundred years. Most Greek gods and goddesses are representations of the active physical elements that made up the local landscape. The Berlin Conference was primarily concerned with __________. Once the American colonies (Figure 3) were conquered, the new European rulers had to find someone to extract the resources and produce the products that would make the colonies worthwhile. Losing these workers made Africa more dependent on European goods and less able to produce for itself. Explanation: “Environmental determinism” is a theory of cultural geography that states that cultural traditions, and the differences between various cultures, are informed by environmental concerns.This had racial connotations during the age of European colonialism. Many of the most-spoken languages around the world are European, with the number of speakers vastly outweighing the population of that language's country of origin. The construction of geographical knowledge -- racialization, spatialization. 2002. Since Papua New Guinea is so poor, they lack the power to say no to the foreign mining company, or to mine the minerals themselves. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. which specific portion of the question – an image, a link, the text, etc – your complaint refers to; Example Questions . Transportation of which of the following was NOT part of the Atlantic Triangular Trade of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries between the Americas (American colonies and the Caribbean), Europe, and Africa? The East India Company ruled the colony as a corporate asset for 100 years, until the British government took over and ran the colony for another 100 years. The volcanoes of Lemnos, an island in the Mediterranean, and Mount Etna, on the island of Sicily, were believed to be the forges of Hephaestus, the Greek god of fire. The Rostow model is wrong because colonialism disrupts the natural pattern of industrialization. Rights verus rites: when it comes to the lives of women around the globe, do local traditions ever trump human rights? The pre-European population of the Americas is estimated to have been somewhere in the range of 40 to 80 million, but the population was reduced to only 6 million by 1650 (Denevan 1992). Crosby, Alfred W. 1986. And the hemisphere-wide economic system that had emerged connected Europe into a huge total population of people. The geography and climate of the Mediterranean region, for example, directly influenced Greek mythology. Post-Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism [link]. Typically, there is a mass migration of people from the colonizing country into the colony. Created by. Sovereignty is the authority of a state to govern itself. Federal and Unitary States. Environment 37 (7): 3-5, 42-43. OR. The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed between the empires of Spain and Portugal in 1494. Indochina, a region that now includes the modern-day countries of Vietnam and Cambodia, was ruled by which of these Empires until the decolonization period that followed World War II? Joni Adamson, Mei Mei Evans, and Rachel Stein, 229-246. Society and Natural Resources 21 (7): 569-582. This made it easy for the package of plants and animals that support the European way of life to be transferred to the new colonies (Crosby 1986). Frank, Andre Gunder, and Barry Gills, eds. The taxes were often timed to force native producers to sell their crops at times of the year when markets were glutted and thus prices were low. 1998. As historian Janet Abu-Lughod put it, "the 'fall of the East' preceded the 'Rise of the West'" (Abu-Lughod 1989). But unfortunately for China, there are few silver mines in its territory. CREATE AN ACCOUNT Create Tests & Flashcards. New international division of labor. Colonialism and the rise of capitalism. Three key factors explain why European diseases were so devastating to Native Americans, whereas with the exception of syphilis, no American diseases ever became a problem for Europeans: domestic animals, population size, and time (Dobson and Carper 1994). During the colonial era, Europeans came to believe that the people of an entire continent were fit only to work at the behest of superior types of humans (Sundberg 2008). New York: W.W. Norton and Co. Faber, Daniel 2002. A boundary that was drawn across an area prior to the area becoming substantially … Mamdani, Mahmood. But the underlying tensions did not go away, and they erupted once the colonizer was pushed out -- as we can see today in Nigeria (Comfort 2002) and Kenya (Daily Nation 2010). Included a large amount of ethnic and cultural groups Why are Empires not States? Blaut, J. M. 1993. India fell first. European powers moved quickly to establish plantations in the Caribbean and nearby parts of the mainland to grow sugar, tobacco, and cotton, among other products. Only a few of today's countries were never ruled by a European or neo-European power, and even those came under heavy European influence in their internal affairs and ability to participate in the world market. As discussed earlier, the world economy goes through cyclical ups and downs. Silent Violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria. a Given this history, it is not surprising that the entitlement theory of famine was developed by Amartya Sen, an Indian. Colonialism Essay Directions Hearth Writing Assessment Hearth Writing Assessment (limit 2 pages or 900 words [insert at end of paper]) Describe how your cultural hearth has been affected politically, and/or economically, and/or culturally because of colonialism or imperialism. For example, imagine what happens when a mining company opens a new mine in Papua New Guinea. These continents proved far more lucrative for Europe than any trade route. Large areas of the world have been integrated into single economic systems for a long period of time. 5 Shapes of Countries. A huge variety of theories have been proposed to explain why certain countries have come to dominate the world economy. Colonizing powers used a variety of techniques to shift economic activity toward cash cropping and resource extraction (e.g. The Berlin Conference was convened in 1884 with the intention of dividing up the continent of Africa among the various European imperial powers (Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy). London: Verso. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. 1. This ideology brought two types of subordination to colonized peoples. The slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa, Soul wound: the legacy of Native American schools, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. The effects of four centuries of slave trade on Africa are still apparent, a mere century and a half after its end. Britain's mills could now buy cotton from its colonies in India and Egypt, as well as slave-grown cotton from the southern US, turn it into cloth, and make a profit selling that cloth around the world, including in the cotton-producing colonies. In Rwanda, for example, the sharp (and allegedly racial) divide between Hutus and Tutsis, and the privileging of the Tutsis that formed the basis of Hutu resentment, were created by the Germans and Belgians during their rule (Mamdani 2001). 101 S. Hanley Rd, Suite 300 and hopefully the two blogs will match up. Despite having achieved independence half a century ago the economy of Algeria remains closely tied to the economy of France. Under British rule, these programs were eliminated. Rights verus rites: when it comes to the lives of women around the globe, do local traditions ever trump human rights? the brand of aggressive, militaristic colonialism that emerged in the second-half of the nineteenth century, the spread and globalization of western, particularly American, culture, the continued economic dependence of colonies on their former occupiers, the dependence of many of the world’s poorest countries on the United States of America for food and aid. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. In this article, we'll go through the structure of the free-response section, some helpful tips for answering AP Human Geography FRQs, examples of what these free-response questions look like, and a few places where you can find the best practice materials. Flashcards. the A disease that infects too quickly will soon find itself without any new victims because everyone in the population is either dead or healed. Dependency Theory. Ships sailing in the Mediterranean were blocked by the African, Arabian, and central Asian land masses, the rulers of which could limit trade or extract taxes from merchants. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ChillingEffects.org. A. as The American Prospect, April 28. Note how this resembles the recent spike in Mexican tortilla prices in response to US ethanol demand. It effectively divided the continent of South America between a Spanish-controlled empire and a Portuguese-controlled empire. … Popular culture portrays Columbus as having the insight that the world was round -- and thus that China could be reached by sailing westward -- while his ignorant contemporaries insisted the world was flat. Send your complaint to our designated agent at: Charles Cohn During this contraction phase, regions refocus on local subsistence and trade declines. Extracting resources from the Americas got Europe into the economic game, making it more competitive and richer, and giving it the ability to become an important middleman in intra-Asian trade as well as trading directly for Asian goods. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. New York: Oxford University Press. Ethnic groups that were hardest-hit by the slave trade exhibit lower trust and poorer economic success than their neighbors who were less devastated by slavery (Nunn and Wantchekon 2009). on or linked-to by the Website infringes your copyright, you should consider first contacting an attorney. This is the regularly scheduled date for the AP Human Geography Exam. Of these countries, all are correctly labeled except Mozambique and Great Britain. But as we learned in an earlier chapter, race is not a biologically valid concept when applied to people. Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . Techniques ranging from aid packages with strings attached, to direct military intervention, were used to install friendly regimes, with little regard to the consequences for the prosperity of the people in the countries in question (Faber 2002). This often leads to mistreatment of the original inhabitants, degradation of the local environment, and introduction of previously unknown diseases. The types include, nations, states, nation-states, multinational states, multistate nations, and autonomous regions. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. 2009. Please be advised that you will be liable for damages (including costs and attorneys’ fees) if you materially Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research. Throughout the Americas, European diseases wiped out countless native people. We learned in an earlier chapter that the idea of race, in the sense of biologically distinct sub-species of humans, was created during the colonial era to justify the social organization of the colonies. Other areas of the colonies were less climatically similar to Europe, but they produced many of the most important commodities such as sugar and tobacco. More specifically, we know that the industrial revolution began in the English Midlands, and spread first to the rest of Europe and North America. Origins of the Modern World System [link]. The correct answer is the opposite of what is typically expected in colonialism. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Dobson, Andrew P., and E. Robin Carper. Beaujard, Philippe. 1. mining). In Environmental Justice: Discourses in International Political Economy, eds. This was most famously done at the 1884 Berlin Conference, when the major European powers drew up a map allocating colonial control of Africa, disregarding any native ethnic or political boundaries as well as natural features (Chamberlain 1999). Chamberlain, Muriel E. 1999. The Colonizer's Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History. The world economy has a three-tier structure. The Scramble for Africa. Explain the degree to which globalization can explain the loss of indigenous languages in Africa since the 1970s. Science & Society 53 (3): 260-296. India and China were the dominant economic powers in this system. Eventually, the stage is set for a renewal of growth. The definition of cultural diffusion (noun) is the geographical and social spread of the different aspects of one more cultures to different ethnicities, religions, nationalities, regions, etc. The Domino Theory. 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And Oceania ’ s physical Geography, environment and resources, taking what is now,! The European/neo-European core used their greater power to interfere with the voyage of Christopher Columbus Blaut! The causes of `` the rise of the Modern world economy issue typically associated with colonialism to.